NARCO-POLITIK: ‘Black Eagle Trust’, Kuomintang, Heroin & The Golden Triangle

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  • “…Willoughby’s “old boys” were a vastly different breed from the old-school tie, Ivy League crowd who ran the CIA. Their enmity went back to a battle for hegemony between Military Intelligence and the OSS [the CIA] during World War II. While the CIA’s power base expanded, the MacArthur-Willoughby’s team’s very existence was threatened. One Democratic president, Harry Truman, pushed them out of the far east. But Willoughby and his ilk did not fade away. They melded into global alliances, extending from quasi-religious orders such as the Shickshinny Knights of Malta to the [ex-Nazi] Reinhard Gehlen-Otto Skorzeny spy team in Europe”

11. Golden Triangle

Black Eagle Trust

Playing a major role in the establishment of CIA’s drug trade in the Golden Triangle was General Charles Willoughby—Shickshinny Knight, member of the ASC and the steering committee of the Liberty Lobby—who had been in charge of all intelligence operations in the Far East under General MacArthur during and after WWII. After retiring from the military in 1951, in the wake of MacArthur’s removal from command in Korea, Willoughby formed his own private intelligence network, which would later become affiliated with the Gehlen Organization. He also consulted with the House Committee on Un-American Activities. Willoughby was involved in the creation of Field Operations Intelligence, a top secret Army Intelligence unit that later came under joint military and CIA control.

General Charles Willoughby, Shickshinny Knight, member of the ASC and the steering committee of the Liberty Lobby.
General Charles Willoughby, Shickshinny Knight, member of the ASC and the steering committee of the Liberty Lobby.

As outlined by journalist Dick Russell and Peter Dale Scott, professor at University of California, Berkeley, General Charles A. Willoughby—member of the ASC and the steering committee of the Liberty Lobby—and his group represented a power struggle within the national security establishment between ultra-right military intelligence types and more “liberal” civilian CIA men. According to Dick Russell in The Man Who Knew Too Much:


Willoughby’s “old boys” were a vastly different breed from the old-school tie, Ivy League crowd who ran the CIA. Their enmity went back to a battle for hegemony between Military Intelligence and the OSS [the CIA] during World War II. While the CIA’s power base expanded, the MacArthur-Willoughby’s team’s very existence was threatened. One Democratic president, Harry Truman, pushed them out of the far east. But Willoughby and his ilk did not fade away. They melded into global alliances, extending from quasi-religious orders such as the Shickshinny Knights of Malta to the [ex-Nazi] Reinhard Gehlen-Otto Skorzeny spy team in Europe.[1]


As described by Peter Dale Scott, in Deep Politics and the Death of JFK:


The intra-bureaucratic feud of the 1950s between the CIA and Hoover was much more than a matter of personalities: it was a conflict between alternate visions of how the United States should expand into the rest of the world. Where the major oil companies and their allies in the CIA thought of creating and dominating a global economy, their nationalist opposition in the United States preferred unilateralist expansion into specific areas, above all Latin America and the far east. The latter group allied dissident generals, resentful of civilian control, with exploiters of minerals and independent oilmen opposed to the oil majors, like William Pawley and H. L. Hunt.[2]


As reported by Sterling and Peggy Seagrave in Gold Warriors: America’s Secret Recovery of Yamashita’s Gold, Willoughy was part of a secret network who recovered Axis loot to become part of a larger secret American slush fund known as the Black Eagle Trust Fund. According to the Seagraves, Knights of Malta membership read like a “Who’s Who” of the Black Eagle Trust. In addition to Willoughby and General Douglas MacArthur’s associates, they included former OSS chief Bill Donovan, former CIA head William Colby, John McCone, William Casey, George H.W. Bush, and James Jesus Angleton. As the Seagraves explained:


It was Donovan, working behind the scenes with John J. McCloy, members of the Mellon family, the Dulles brothers, and gangster Meyer Lansky, who set up the global network of secret funds and black banks that made creative use of the Black Eagle Trust, and laundered drug profits before they entered U.S. banks to bolster the American economy.[3]


Most prominent among the Mellon family supporters of the American Liberty League was Andrew Mellon, the son of the patriarch of the family, and U.S. Secretary of the Treasury. Andrew’s son was Paul Mellon, who served with the OSS in Europe during World War II, and who was co-heir to one of America’s greatest business fortunes, derived from the Mellon Bank. In 1957, when Fortune prepared its first list of the wealthiest Americans, it estimated that Paul, his sister Ailsa Mellon-Bruce, and her cousins Sarah Cordelia Mellon and her brother Richard King Mellon, were all amongst the richest eight people in the United States.[4] A number of Mellons served in the OSS, notably Paul’s brother-in-law David Bruce, the OSS station chief in London and later American ambassador to England. After World War II, and before entering the diplomatic field, and his new second wife became an early member of the Georgetown Set. Bruce’s connections in Europe during the War included high-ranking Italian Freemasons who held influential posts within Mussolini’s government.[5] Kennedy appointed Bruce as ambassador to the United Kingdom. According to Richard Harris Smith, “Other Mellons and Mellon in-laws held espionage posts in Madrid, Geneva and Paris.”[6] After the war, a number influential members of the Mellon family maintained close ties with the CIA, and Mellon family foundations have been used repeatedly as CIA fronts. During his tenure as CIA director, Richard Helms was a frequent guest of the Mellons in Pittsburgh.[7]

Genealogy of Mellon Family

  • Thomas Mellon (patriarch and founder of Mellon Bank) + Sarah Jane Negley
    • Andrew W. Mellon (Secretary of State, backer of Liberty League)
      • Paul Mellon (OSS) + Mary Mellon (patron of Eranos Conferences and Bollingen Foundation)
      • Ailsa Mellon Bruce (established the Avalon Foundation) + David Bruce (OSS, ambassador to England)
    • James Ross Mellon
      • William Larimer Mellon Sr. (founder of Gulf Oil) + Mary Hill Taylor
      • Rachel Mellon Walton
        • Margaret Mellon + Tommy Hitchcock Jr. (inspired the Great Gatsby)
          • William Mellon Hitchcock (owner of Millbrook Estate, funded Timothy Leary’s IFIF. Sent by David Bruce to meet with Dr. Stephen Ward of Profumo Affair)
          • Margaret Mellon “Peggy” Hitchcock
        • William Larimer Mellon, Jr.
    • Richard B. Mellon + Jennie Taylor King
      • Sarah Cordelia Mellon + Alan Magee Scaife
        • Richard Mellon Scaife (controlled the Sarah Scaife Foundation)
      • Richard King Mellon

Robert B. Anderson (1910 – 1989)
Robert B. Anderson (1910 – 1989)

The idea of a global political action fund based on war loot actually originated during the Roosevelt administration, with Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, a member of Skull and Bones. As the tide turned against the Axis, it was only a matter of time before Nazi gold began to be recovered. To eliminate any trace of original ownership, the Nazis had melted down their gold and recast it as ingots marked with the swastika and black eagle of the Reichsbank. Stimson’s special assistants on the issue were his deputies John J. McCloy and Robert Lovett, and consultant Robert B. Anderson (1910 – 1989). They had first proposed a to President Roosevelt to use recovered Nazi, Fascist, and Japanese war loot to finance a global political action fund, which became known as a top secret project sometimes called Black Eagle.[8] Lovett was a core member of the group of foreign policy elders known as “The Wise Men,” and was deemed an “architect of the cold war” by social scientist G. William Domhoff, in his 1970 book, The Higher Circles: The Governing Class in America.[9] What they a number of them had in common was their close relationship to the Harrimans and Rockefellers. Lovett’s father had been the right-hand man of railway magnate E.H. Harriman, working with him at Brown Brothers Harriman. According to Sterling and Peggy Seagrave, a number sources have pointed out that the Black Eagle Trust could only have been set up with the cooperation of the most powerful banking families in America and Europe, including the Rockefellers, Harrimans, Rothschilds, Oppenheimers, Warburgs, and others. Sid Richardson had prevailed on his close friend Eisenhower to name Robert B. Anderson as Secretary of the Navy. Anderson had run an estate by W.T. Waggoner, on whose lands Clint Murchison and Richardson had drilled wells.[10].

American soldiers inspect World War II looted treasure.
American soldiers inspect World War II looted treasure.

The problem of how to deal with Nazi loot after the war was discussed in July 1944, when forty-four nations met at the resort of Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, to plan the post-war economy. It was widely believed that the BIS was secretly laundering Nazi funds. Bretton Woods therefore set up a new central financial clearinghouse called the International Monetary Fund (IMF), to act as the world’s future financial clearinghouse and moneychanger. Gold was assigned a dollar value of $35 an ounce, all other currencies were valued against the dollar. As well, the importation of gold to America for personal use was banned. While it was a global organization, the IMF’s most important backer was the U.S. Government. Neutral countries that signed the Bretton Woods agreement also promised to not knowingly accept stolen gold and other looted assets, but Portugal neglected to include Macao in the list of its dependent territories. For during the remainder of the war, Macao became a world center for trade in illicit gold and was heavily exploited by Japan.


Willoughby forged a close relationship with Yoshia Kodama (1911 –1984), an Imperial Japan war criminal and the longtime head of the Yakuza.[11] As recounted by Sterling and Peggy Seagrave, in The Yamato Dynasty: The Secret History of Japan’s Imperial Family, Kodama spent the war supervising the looting of strategic military materials and the distribution of drugs. Kodama first worked with the army in Manchuria and China, then was given the rank of rear admiral of the navy. In this guise, Kodama travelled throughout East and Southeast Asia, making use of naval vessels for the repatriation of loot, reportedly keeping much of it for himself.

During the war, the Japanese Army, overseen by Emperor Hirohito’s brother Prince Chichibu, had confiscated billions of dollars worth of treasure by from a dozen conquered countries, a hoard known as the Golden Lily. According to Japanese sources, Prince Chichibu moved Golden Lily’s headquarters from Singapore to Luzon, a northern island of the Philippines, hiding the treasure in numerous vaults, tunnels, bunkers and caves.

During the closing months of the war, the Golden Lily treasure was discovered by Willoughby’s staff member, Edward Lansdale (1908 – 1987), after Major Kojima revealed the details of the caches under torture. When the war ended, Willoughby and other intelligence officers backed secret recovery operations that produced huge sums, according to some of the American officers who participated. The gold was recovered intermittently over the years and was slipped into the market cautiously to avoid affecting world gold prices. One such effort involved the John Birch Society. In the mid-1970, the society lent nearly $500,000 to an American treasure-hunter to finance a recovery in the Philippines, promising to help him launder up to $20 billion of the recovered gold. Colonel Laurence Bunker, a close friend of Willoughby, who took over the Bonner Fellers as MacArthur’s chief aide, personal secretary and spokesman from 1946 until his retirement in 1952, was a charter member of the JBS.[12]

Edward Lansdale
Edward Lansdale

With knowledge of the Golden Lily finds in the Philippines, Lansdale flew to Washington to brief President Truman’s national security aide, Navy Captain Clark Clifford, and members of the Cabinet. Truman decided to keep the discovery secret, and to recover as much of the Japanese loot as possible. Anderson flew back to Tokyo with Lansdale, for discussions with MacArthur, to coordinate the absorption of Golden Lily assets into the Black Eagle Fund. The underground funds later surfaced as huge bribes, or were used to buy elections, famously in Italy, Greece, and Japan, but probably in other countries as well. In postwar Italy, James Jesus Angleton recovered Ethiopian treasure plundered by Mussolini’s forces, which was appropriated by the CIA and used to finance pro-American and anti-communist candidates in Italy’s 1948 elections. In addition, the CIA raised a great deal of money in Europe from the sale of surplus U.S. war materiel, which it gave to the Vatican, earmarked explicitly for the war on communism in Italy.[13]

Anderson apparently traveled all over the world, setting up these black gold accounts, providing money for political action funds throughout the non-communist world. In 1953, to reward him, President Eisenhower nominated Anderson to a Cabinet post as secretary of the Navy. The following year he rose to deputy secretary of Defense. During the second Eisenhower Administration, he became secretary of the Treasury, serving from 1957 to 1961. Anderson would go on to operate the Commercial Exchange Bank in the British West Indies, be convicted of running illegal banking operations and tax evasion, and be sentenced to prison.[14]




The connections between Willoughby and other the operators of the Black Eagle Fund and their Asian counterparts formed the basis of an international drug-trade in the infamous Golden Triangle, disguised as anti-communist activities. The US government’s involvement in drug-trafficking for the financing of covert activities dates back at least to the OSS. A private agreement was settled between Allen Dulles, then Swiss “Station Chief” for the OSS, and SS General Karl Wolff, against the direct, written orders of President Roosevelt. The SS were granted freedom from prosecution in return for agreeing to secretly work for American intelligence against the Russians in the Cold War. However, since it was impossible for the OSS to fund this secret network, Dulles allowed the Nazis to finance themselves from their vast stocks of Morphine, plundered Jewish gold, and a mass of counterfeit British bank-notes.[15]

Alfred W. McCoy, author of The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade, interviewed Maurice Belleux, former head of the French intelligence agency SDECE, and uncovered parts of the French Connection scheme used by the CIA to finance all of its covert operations during the First Indochina War through control of the Indochina drug trade.[16] The vast majority of the heroin of the French Connection came not from Turkey, but from the Golden Triangle, via Manilla and Hong Kong. The French Connection—in which the CIA and the SDECE collaborated with Lucky Luciano’s Sicilian Mafia and Marseille’s Corsican Gang—reached its peak in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and was responsible for providing the vast majority of the heroin used in the United States. In 1967, however, the Turkish government announced that it would begin phasing out cultivation of opium poppies on the Anatolian plateau in order to deprive Marseille’s illicit heroin laboratories of raw material. Unwilling to abandon their profitable narcotics racket, the American Mafia and Corsican syndicates shifted their sources of supply to Southeast Asia.

General Chiang Kai-shek (1887 – 1975)
General Chiang Kai-shek (1887 – 1975)

The First Indochina War, which began in French Indochina on 19 December 1946, and lasted until 1 August 1954, gradually escalated into the Vietnam War. Belleux told McCoy that French military intelligence had financed all their covert operations from the control of the Indochina drug trade. The French paratroopers fighting with hill tribes collected the opium and French aircraft would fly the opium down to Saigon and the Sino-Vietnamese mafia that was the instrument of French intelligence would then distribute the opium. The central bank accounts, and the sharing of the profits, were all controlled by French military intelligence. He concluded the interview by telling him that it was his information that the CIA had taken over the French assets and were pursuing something of the same policy.

During the Korean War, the first allegations of CIA drug trafficking surfaced after 1949, stemming from a deal whereby arms were supplied to Chiang Kai-shek’s defeated generals in exchange for intelligence.[17] In 1938, a Japanese representative to the Welt-Dienst/World-Service congress hosted by Aufbau member Ulrich Fleischhauer stated, on behalf of Japan, that “Judeo-Masonry is forcing the Chinese to turn China into a spearhead for an attack on Japan, and thereby forcing Japan to defend herself against this threat. Japan is at war not with China but with Freemasonry (Tiandihui), represented by General Chiang Kai-shek, the successor of his master, the Freemason Sun Yat-sen.”[18]

George Sokolsky, close friend of Roy Cohn
George Sokolsky, close friend of Roy Cohn

George Sokolsky, a writer associated with the American Jewish League Against Communism (AJLAC) and a close friend of Roy Cohn, became political adviser and friend to Sun Yat-sen, Soong Mei-ling, Chiang Kai-shek and “Two-Gun” Cohen.[19] Sokolsky arranged an interview for Morris Abraham “Two-Gun” Cohen with Eugene Chen, Sun’s English language secretary. Cohen was a British and Canadian adventurer of Jewish origin who became aide-de-camp to Sun Yat-sen and a major-general in the Chinese National Revolutionary Army. Cohen was also acquainted with Chiang Kai-shek.

Chiang Kai-shek’s Kuomintang (KMT) became the ruling party in mainland China until 1949, when it lost the Chinese Civil War to the Communist Party of China (CPC), when the KMT retreated to Taiwan and lost most of its territory. Collaboration between Taiwan and the Nazis began in 1933, when Hans von Seeckt travelled to China, where he advised that the first steps toward achieving economic and military development was that the Chinese military be uniformly trained and consolidated under Chiang’s command, and that the entire military system must be subordinated into a centralized hierarchy. Finance minister of China and KMT official H.H. Kung and two other Chinese KMT officials visited Germany in 1937 and were received by Adolf Hitler. Kung also met Hjalmar Schacht who explained to him that the Anti-Comintern Pact was not a German-Japanese alliance against China, and that Germany was glad to loan China 100 million Reichsmark and would not do so with the Japanese.[20] Hitler also said he admired Chiang Kai-shek because he had built a powerful centralized government.[21]


World Anti-Communist League

President Park Chung Hee, left, and Kim Jong-pil watch the counting of votes on election night on May 3, 1967 at the headquarters of the Democratic Republican Party. Park handily won the election for his second-term by a margin of 1.16 million votes.
President Park Chung Hee, left, and Kim Jong-pil watch the counting of votes on election night on May 3, 1967 at the headquarters of the Democratic Republican Party. Park handily won the election for his second-term by a margin of 1.16 million votes.
Douglas MacArthur and Kim Jong-pil (1926 – 2018) founder of the Korean Central Intelligence Agency (KCIA), who served as Prime Minister twice.
Douglas MacArthur and Kim Jong-pil (1926 – 2018) founder of the Korean Central Intelligence Agency (KCIA), who served as Prime Minister twice.

An important organization linking the CIA covert network of drugs and arms dealing and the Fascist International was the World Anti-Communist League (WACL), which had very close ties with the ASC.[22] The United States collaborated with Chiang Kai-shek and South Korean intelligence in founding the Asian People’s Anti-Communist League (APACL) established in South Korea in 1954. Ex-Nazi collaborators from Eastern Europe also helped set up the APACL. The organization had the purpose of uniting conservatives from all over the Asian continent to battle communism. Possibly arranged through Taiwanese CIA Station Chief and purported JFK conspirator Ray S. Cline, the US funds seem to have helped start the APACL.[23] In 1954, the APACL’s first Latin American affiliate was founded in Mexico City by Hunt, where he was also plotting Operation PBSUCCESS for the overthrow of Arbenz in Guatemala.[24]

In 1958, when a steering committee was announced in Mexico City to explore the possibility of combining the APACL with its own Latin American offshoot to form what eventually became the WACL, Marvin Liebman, a member of the AJLAC, became its general secretary.[25] Liebman enjoyed a long-time friendship with William F. Buckley, Jr. and his family. Liebman viewed Buckley as an inspiring mentor. Despite being born into the Jewish faith, under Buckley’s guidance Liebman converted to Roman Catholicism.[26]

U.S. President Eisenhower with Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi during their June 1957 meeting in the White House.
U.S. President Eisenhower with Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi during their June 1957 meeting in the White House.

Kim Jong Pil (1926 – 2018), the founder of the Korean Central Intelligence Agency (KCIA) and the chief architect of the 1961 coup in South Korea that put Park Chung Ehe in power, was beholden to essentially the same Japanese interests who were backing the Moon Organization. Nobusuke Kishi, who has been called “America’s Favorite War Criminal,” was considered by the US government to be the best man to lead a post-war Japan in a pro-American direction.[27] He went on to consolidate the Japanese conservative camp against perceived threats from the Japan Socialist Party in the 1950s, and is credited with being a key player in the initiation of the extended period during which the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) was the overwhelmingly dominant political party in Japan.

During his three-year reign as Prime Minister, Kishi established particularly close relations with South Korea, the Philippines, and Indonesia. Under his tutelage, the right-wing made a substantial comeback, pseudo-religions like The Fellowship Frank Buchman’s Moral Rearmament Association (MRA) and Sun Myung Moon’s Unification Church prospered, and the CIA-generated money flowed into the LDP. This fact of CIA of support for successive conservative governments in Japan has been substantiated by E. Howard Hunt, who served as CIA Station Chief in Tokyo in the 1950s, and by Roger Hilsman, ranking member of the State Department, among many others.[28]

Sun Myung Moon and wife Hak Ja Han
Sun Myung Moon and wife Hak Ja Han

Moon, and his two fascist Japanese associates, Yoshia Kodama and Ryoichi Sasakawa, worked together in the founding of the APACL with the aid of KCIA agents. According to intelligence reports released by a House investigating subcommittee, Moon’s Unification Church was founded by Kim Jong Pil in 1961 as a political tool.[29] Pil, like Kishi, was a supporter of the MRA and an exponent of the APACL. In the 1950s and 1960s, MRA’s work expanded across the globe. Buchman was a pioneer in multi-faith initiatives, like Moon’s Unification Church, which had extensive ties to the WACL. Buchman wrote, “MRA is the good road of an ideology inspired by God upon which all can unite. Catholic, Jew and Protestant, Hindu, Muslim, Buddhist and Confucianist—all find they can change, where needed, and they can travel along this good road together.”[30]

The Fellowship member Frank Buchman
The Fellowship member Frank Buchman

Moon claimed that at the age of fifteen he had seen a vision of Jesus, and agreed to the Saviour’s request to “take over my work.” Moon preached in northern Korea after the end of World War II and in 1946 was imprisoned by the communist regime in North Korea. United Nations and American forces, under General Douglas MacArthur, rescued the South, and one month later, Moon was released from prison and moved south along with many other North Koreans. Would later finance a film named Inchon in 1981, directed by Terence Young about the Battle of Inchon, which considered to be the turning point of the Korean War, starring Laurence Olivier as MacArthur.

The Unification Church has been the subject of controversy over its beliefs, which differ from traditional Christian interpretations of the Bible and have been called heretical and anti-Semitic by some critics. The Unification Church is said to have been esoteric in that it keeps some of its doctrines secret from non-members, a practice that is sometimes called “heavenly deception.”[31] The church’s official teachings, the Divine Principle, which was first published as in 1945, offers an interpretation of the Bible that, it is claimed, can unite all religions. The Divine Principle upholds a belief in spiritualism—that is communication with the spirits of deceased persons. Moon and early church members associated with spiritualists, including the famous Arthur Ford.[32]

Leslie Weatherhead
Leslie Weatherhead

Leslie Weatherhead, a member of Buchman’s Oxford Group, and one of Britain’s leading Methodist preachers, noted for his preaching ministry at City Temple in London, developed a theory that Jesus was the son of Zechariah which later became part of the teachings of the Unification Church.[33] After it was destroyed during World War II, Weatherhead raised funds to rebuild the City Temple, largely from John D. Rockefeller. Weatherhead was a highly controversial figure on account of his questioning of some of the central tenets of the Christian faith. According to Weatherhead, “The Christianity of tomorrow will embrace all truth wherever it is found or however men have come to apprehend it, whether through specifically Christian teaching or through Buddhism or Mohammedanism, Hinduism, Confucianism, Taoism, Zoroastrianism or even through the bleak desert of apparent atheism.”[34] He dismissed the Virgin Birth, was inclined to believe that Zechariah was the father of Jesus, thought that the “legion” of demons probably meant that the he had been molested as a child by Roman legionnaires, and regarded the Apostle Paul as a neurotic. Weatherhead regularly attended spirit séances, and preached the case for reincarnation. The Rev. Ian Paisley, later Lord Bannside, denounced Weatherhead in a 1969 sermon as “the man that said that Jesus Christ was the bastard son of Zechariah (John the Baptist’s father) – and Mary, who was a prostitute of the temple… That is about as vile a thing as anybody could say.” He called Weatherhead “an arch-apostate,” whose place was “in hell.”[35]

Soon after the 1961 coup, Pil turned to the Japanese for support, through a channel reportedly opened by Kodama.[36] Kodama became involved in the drug trade at this time, moving opiates to Japan along with the supplies he was paid by the government to smuggle. He formed a vast network of allies and built a fortune—more than $175 million US— making him one of the richest men in Asia during this time. At the end of World War II, Kodama was arrested by the United States as a suspected Class A war criminal. The US intelligence community later secured Kodama’s release in exchange for his assistance in serving as an informant and fighting communism in Asia.[37] For decades Chiang Kai-shek and Yoshio Kodama were the two largest drug lords in the Far East, achieving a near-monopoly over the world heroin supply in the early 1970s.[38]


Anti-Bolshevik Block of Nations

Ryōichi Sasakawa (1899 – 1995)
Ryōichi Sasakawa (1899 – 1995)

Japanese millionaire Ryoichi Sasakawa, who referred to himself as “the world’s richest fascist,” became an advisor to the Japanese branch of the Unification Church.[39] A friend of Chiang Kai-sheck, Sasakawa was also one of the original founders of the WACL. The WACL emerged in 1966, when the APACL merged with another fascist organization, the Anti-Bolshevik Block of Nations (ABN), a co-ordinating center for anti-Communist émigré political organizations from Soviet and other socialist countries.[40]

Stepan Bandera (1909 – 1959)
Stepan Bandera (1909 – 1959)

The ABN took its current name in 1946 and claims direct descent from the Committee of Subjugated Nations, which was formed in 1943 by Hitler’s allies, including the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA). The roots of the OUN/UPA may be traced to the militantly anti-Communist and nationalist Ukrainian underground founded by Colonel Eugen Konovalets in the 1920s. Although opposed to Stalinism, the group was Fascist, with strong links to the German intelligence service of Admiral Wilhelm Canaris. The League of Nations had publicly condemned the OUN as a terrorist syndicate and Polish courts had handed down death sentences to OUN leaders Mykola Lebed (1909 – 1998) and Stepan Bandera (1909 – 1959) for their roles in the 1934 murder of Polish Interior Minister General Bronislav Pieracki, among others. Once released in 1939, after his sentence was commuted to life imprisonment, Bandera organized OUN sympathizers into armed squadrons under an Abwehr program code-named Nachtigall, or Nightingale.

The OUN split into two organizations: the less militant OUN-M, and the more extremist group of Stepan Bandera, known as OUN-B, a clandestine group financed in part by German intelligence. After the start of the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union in 1940, the OUN-B in the person of Yaroslav Stetsko (1912 – 1986) declared a short-lived Ukrainian Government under the control of Nazi Germany, and pledged to fight as an ally for Hitler’s “New Order.”[41] The stated aim of the regime was to “closely cooperate with the National-Socialist Greater Germany, under the leadership of its leader Adolf Hitler which is forming a new order in Europe and the world.”[42] In 1941, Bandera and his deputy Stetsko were held by the Germans in Berlin, where they submitted dozens of proposals for cooperation to different Nazi institutions (OKW, RSHA etc.) and freely communicated with their followers.[43]

Photograph of the Lviv pogrom on or around 1 July 1941 in Lviv, German-occupied Poland (now Ukraine). The Germans encouraged attacks on the Jewish community in two pogroms, 30 June – 2 July 1941 and 25 – 29 July 1941, during which around 6,000 Polish Jews were killed by Ukrainian nationalists and local people.
Yaroslav Stetsko (1912 – 1986) and wife Yaroslava
Yaroslav Stetsko (1912 – 1986) and wife Yaroslava

The temporary capital of the Ukraine during the German invasion in 1941 was the city of Lviv. The city had been annexed to the Soviet Union in 1939. In the initial stage of Operation Barbarossa on June 30, 1941, Lviv was taken by the Germans. The evacuating Soviets killed most of the prison population, with arriving Wehrmacht forces easily discovering evidence of the Soviet mass murders in the city committed by the NKVD and NKGB. Ukrainian nationalists, organized as a militia, and the civilian population were allowed to take revenge on the “Jews and the Bolsheviks.” Lviv was the original stronghold of the Sabbatean Frankists. The Polish rabbis attempted to ban the Sabbatean heresy at the assembly at Lviv in in 1722. Jacob Frank is believed to have been born a few hundred kilometers away in Korołówka, in Podolia of Eastern Poland, now in Ukraine, in about 1726. At the time of the German attack, about 160,000 Jews lived in the city, fortified by tens of thousands due to the arrival of Jewish refugees from German-occupied Poland.[44]

Supported by the Nazis, the OUN-B formed Ukrainian death-squads which carried out pogroms and massacres. The most deadly of them was perpetrated in the city of Lviv by the Ukrainian People’s Militia with direct participation of civilians, at the moment of the Germans’ arrival in Soviet-occupied Eastern Poland. Stetsko wrote to Bandera that OUN had “formed a Militsiya to remove the Jews.”[45] There were two separate pogroms in Lviv. The first pogrom took the lives of at least 4,000 Jews. It was followed by the killing of 2,500 to 3,000 Jews by the Einsatzgruppe C, the SS death squads, and the “Petlura Days” massacre of more than 2,000 Polish Jews by the Ukrainian militants. During the pogrom, on June 30, 1941 Bandera declared a sovereign Ukrainian state in Lviv, and a few days later was arrested by the Germans who opposed it.

Shortly after the Lviv pogroms, the “Jewish Worker Camp,” later known as the Janowska concentration camp, began to form under the leadership of the German administration by the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police (UAP), composed in large part of the former members of the Ukrainian People’s Militia.[46] The UAP was created by Heinrich Himmler in mid-August 1941 and put under the control of German Ordnungspolizei in General Government territory. According to Professor Alexander Statiev of the Canadian University of Waterloo, the UAP were the major perpetrator of the Holocaust on Soviet territories based on native origins, and those police units participated in the extermination of 150,000 Jews in the area of Volhynia alone.[47]

Members of the Lviv National Opera, who were held prisoner at Janowska concentration camp, were ordered to play Tango of Death repeatedly. On the eve of Lviv’s liberation, the Nazis ordered 40 members of the orchestra to form a circle. The security ringed the musicians and ordered them to play. First, the orchestra conductor was executed, and then the remainder of the musicians were ordered one by one to come to the center of the circle, put their instrument and strip naked, after which they were shot in the head.[48] A photo of the orchestra players was one of the incriminating documents at the Nuremberg trials.

Tango of death, a Jewish orchestra in the Janowska concentration camp outside of Lviv, Ukraine
Tango of death, a Jewish orchestra in the Janowska concentration camp outside of Lviv, Ukraine

In July 1941, however Bandera himself was arrested and sent to a concentration camp in Germany, which he left only in 1944. In April 1944, Bandera and Stetsko were approached by Otto Skorzeny to discuss plans for diversions and sabotage against the Soviet Army.[49] During the Cold War western intelligence agencies, including the CIA, covertly supported the OUN.[50] Documents declassified by the CIA under a FOIA request entitled The NAZI War Crimes Declassification Act show that from the time of World War II up until his death, Bandera and Stetsko gained the support of the American government who not only protected them from the Soviet Union, but also in such matters as obtaining visas and secret accommodation. Another document further proves that Stetsko and other “Banderists” received support from the British government as well. Stetsko’s relationship with the CIA and the US government is extensive and stretches from his time in the OUN with Bandera until his death in Munich, where OUN was embedded with American intelligence in a variety of ways in Europe, including Radio Free Europe.[51] Stetsko not only provided information to Americans about the situation in Ukraine, but he also enjoyed the confidence of Allen Dulles, the director of the CIA at the time. “A letter from the CIA expressing Dulles’ interest in Stetsko stated: “You may be assured that the question of nationalism is under constant study by this Agency. It is, as you say, unquestionably a potent force.”[52]

Mykola Lebed (1909 – 1998)
Mykola Lebed (1909 – 1998)

According to US Army intelligence records obtained through the FOIA, the OUN appointed Mykola Lebed “Home Secretary and Police Minister” in the Nazi quisling government in Lviv. As leader of OUN-B, Lebed was responsible for the genocide of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia. Nevertheless, Lebed emerged after the war as one of the United States’ most important agents inside the OUN/ UPA. The Yad Vashem archives in Jerusalem contain a detailed description of Lebed’s activities personally leading the torture and murder of captured Jews at Krakow as a means of “hardening” his men against bloodshed.[53] Lebed worked with the Army Counterintelligence Corps (CIC) in Munich, and his “Liberation Council” was receiving a substantial income from American sources. As noted by Christopher Simpson, “Lebed’s new handlers in Munich, it is worth noting, were the same group of American CIC agents who were at that time running Klaus Barbie and Emil Augsburg’s network of fugitive SS men.”[54] Such was the level of protection that Lebed received that Allen Dulles personally wrote a letter of recommendation that not only allowed Lebed to enter the United States but also denied his role in the 1934 assassination of and his collaboration with the Nazis.[55] The CIA constantly monitored Lebed and did everything in its power to avoid the truth about his past being exposed by journalists or the Department of Justice. The CIA and elements of the OSI (Office of Special Investigations), worked together to keep Lebed’s past from being revealed by their own department.[56]

Laszlo Pasztor
Laszlo Pasztor

In World War II, Laszlo Pasztor was a leader of the youth group of the Arrow Cross, the Hungarian equivalent of the German Nazi Party, which became a branch of the Anti-Bolshevik Network (ABN) with ties to the WACL.[57] In 1968, Pasztor was the founding chair of the Republican Heritage Groups Council (RHGC), an Eastern European émigré network which included anti-Semites, fascists, former Nazis, Nazi sympathizers and collaborators, and members with connections to Italy’s P2 Masonic lodge. According to Russ Bellant, “These antidemocratic and racialist components of the Republican Heritage Groups Council use anticommunist sentiments as a cover for their views while they operate as a de facto émigré fascist network within the Republican Party.”[58]

One organization that brought together, under ASC auspices, the RHGC and Nazi collaborationists is the National Confederation of American Ethnic Groups (NCAEG). Its Executive Vice-President was Z. Michael Szaz, who was an official of the Virginia Republican Heritage Groups Council, an associate of Roger Pearson, and a director of the ASC’s American Foreign Policy Institute. Dr. Alexander Ronnett, head of the Romanian American National Congress, an affiliate of the NCAEG, was a supporter of the Iron Guard. The group had long-standing ties to the WACL. A founder of the NCAEG was Austin App, who was also active in the IHR. App belonged to the German American National Congress (also known by its German acronym DANK). App wrote The Six Million Swindle, asserting that the Nazi extermination of Jews didn’t happen. In 1984, Ronnett spoke at the February, 1986 annual meeting of Willis Carto’s Institute for Historical Review (IHR), founded by Willis Carto in 1978 as an organization dedicated to publicly challenging the commonly accepted history of the Holocaust.

The Heritage Groups Council for Citizenship Education, a subsidiary of DANK, was headed by Karol Sitko, who was active in NCAEG. Sitko was described in the Washington Post as an ally of App and Ivan Docheff, head of the fascist Bulgarian National Front. According to Bellant, “The ABN is the high council for the expatriate nationalist groups that formed the police, military, and militia units that worked with Hitler during World War II.”[59] As a forerunner of modern death squads, it is consistent that ABN also has links with the WACL. The Latin American Anti-Communist Confederation (CAL), for many years the Latin-American branch of WACL has a great affinity for the ABN and its members. ABN and CAL drew up a resolution in 1983 whose statements reflected a Third Way ideology. Other ABN affiliates include, Slovak World Congress, a successor organization to the Nazi-allied Tiso regime of Slovakia; Bulgarian National Front; Supreme Committee for the Liberation of Lithuania; World Federation of Free Latvians; Croatian Liberation Movement, whose leadership came from officials of the German-created Croatian Ustashi regime of 1941-44; Byelorussian Central Council; and the Romanian Liberation Movement, a Romanian affiliate of ABN and the WACL.[60]

Other RHGC leaders who have been active with the NCAEG include Walter Melianovich, Nicolas Nazarenko, Alexander Aksenov, and Laszlo Pasztor. Nicolas Nazarenko, was a former World War II officer in the German SS Cossack Division, who headed intelligence operations in Berlin for a Cossack “government-in-exile.”[61] Melianovich was head of the Byelorussian American Republican Federation, which has had Nazi collaborators in leadership roles.[62] Melianovich’s federation is closely associated with the Byelorussian American Association (BAA). An early BAA leader was Franz Kushel, an SS major general and commander of the Belarus Brigade, a Waffen SS unit.[63]

The WACL became an ultra-right-wing umbrella organization composed of neo-Nazis, Waffen SS veterans, Eastern European collaborators, Latin American death squad chiefs, and other hard-core anti-Semites. At least three WACL European Chapters (the German, the Austrian, and the Dutch) were taken over by former Nazi SS officers.[64] The WACL, explains Stuart Christie, is “The most sinister of all the internationally active extreme right wing organizations and pressure groups,” and “is based on Goebbels’ ‘Anti-Komintern’ and is the main conduit for funds for extreme right wing organizations throughout the world.”[65] Many of the most infamous CIA operations took place under the aegis of the WACL, like Operation Paperclip and related operations aimed at recruiting Nazis and other fascists, as well as the Phoenix Program, and later Operation Condor and Operation Gladio.


Air America

Karol Sitko was supported by Willoughby’s associate, billionaire H.L. Hunt, and with ASC founder General John Singlaub, who was deeply involved in the WACL, and who worked closely in Lansdale’s protégée Ted Shackley’s secret drug-running operations from the Golden Triangle to the Iran-Contra Affair.[66] CIA drug-smuggling in Indochina was facilitated through its infamous front, Civil Air Transport (later Air America). It was another Black Eagle Trust Fund conspirator, Paul Helliwell, who in 1950 helped arrange the purchase of Claire Lee Chennault’s Civil Air Transport (CAT) cargo airline and turn it into Air America. A former OSS officer in Kunming, and later an officer of OPC and the CIA, Helliwell became an intimate associate of Bill Casey and Ray S. Cline, and was involved in moving the first recoveries of the Golden Lily hoard out of the Philippines. Casey was Singlaub’s case officer during the war, while Helliwell was Singlaub’s direct superior.

Paul Helliwell (left)
Paul Helliwell (left)

In 1951, Helliwell set up Sea Supply Corp., a CIA front used to run supplies to the Nationalists in China, which also ran Nationalist opium and heroin out of the Golden Triangle for the KMT.[67] Along with two former associates from the KMT-Burma drug connection, Frank Wisner of the CIA and General Claire Chennault, Helliwell also worked for CIA operations against Guatemala in 1953-54.[68] Like Chennault and his old associates from his days in China, Whiting Willauer and William Pawley, Helliwell also assisted in operations against Castro, reputedly financing the Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961.[69]

Helliwell was also counsel for the money-laundering Miami National Bank, controlled by Meyer Lansky.[70] Helliwell was also the owner of the Bank of Perrine in Key West, Florida, “a two-time laundromat for the Lansky mob and the CIA,” and its sister Bank of Cutler Ridge.[71] While in the OSS, Helliwell had developed connections to Santos Trafficante, Jr., who shared an interest with the CIA in the successful exportation of Chinese white heroin. By the early 1960s, Trafficante was the single biggest customer for the CIA-backed Asian heroin. Helliwell laundered organized-crime drug money through his Mercantile and Castle banks, as well as provided organized crime with ex-CIA-trained Cuban refugees for sales and enforcement assignments.[72]

According to a U.S. special warfare veteran, William Corson, a number of ex-Nazis became pilots in the 1950-52 supply operation of Civil Air Transport to opium-growing KMT guerrilla forces in Thailand and Burma. Allen Dulles’ biographer recounts that in 1952, Walter Bedell Smith “had to send top officials of both clandestine branches [CIA’s Office of Policy Co-ordination (OPC) and Office of Special Operations (OSO)] out to untangle a mess of opium trading under the cover of efforts to topple the Chinese communists.” [73] Apparently, an OSO officer investigation drug traffic through Thailand was murdered by an OPC officer. As a result of the scandal, referred to as the “Thailand Flap,” the operation was to be officially terminated, and the OPC was merged into the CIA. Thus, explains Peter Dale Scott, “OPC ‘cowboys’ who had relished their unsupervised use of former Nazis and drug traffickers were now theoretically subordinated to the somewhat more bureaucratic line of command in the CIA’s Office of Special Operations (OSO).”[74]

Air America Bell 205 helicopter leaving a Hmong fire support base in the Laotian Plain of Jars, c. 1969.
Air America Bell 205 helicopter leaving a Hmong fire support base in the Laotian Plain of Jars, c. 1969.

Nevertheless, the operation was able to go under complete cover of the KMT, since Civil Air Transport had a KMT corporate entity as well as an American CIA one. The planes were now being sponsored by a new group, the Asian People’s Anti-Communist League (APACL), the predecessor of the World Anti-Communist League (WACL), set up in 1954 with the assistance of future members of the Shackley’s “secret team.”[75] Shackley became the CIA Station Chief placed in charge of the CIA secret war in Laos between 1966–1968, from where he directed the CIA’s secret war of pitting the Hmong people villagers against Viet Cong who used the Ho Chi Minh Trail.

During the early 1950s, the CIA had backed the formation of a Nationalist Chinese guerrilla army in Burma, which controlled almost a third of the world’s illicit opium supply, and in Laos the CIA created a Meo mercenary army whose commander manufactured heroin for sale to Americans GIs in South Vietnam. Later in the same region, while the CIA was sponsoring a Secret War in Laos from 1961 to 1975, it was openly accused of trafficking heroin in the area then known as the Golden Triangle. In late 1969 new heroin laboratories sprang up in the tri-border area where Burma, Thailand, and Laos converge, and unprecedented quantities of heroin started flooding into the United States. The heroin supply was partially responsible for the poor state of US Army morale in Vietnam.[76]

Vang Pao (1929 – 2011), major general in the Royal Lao Army.
Vang Pao (1929 – 2011), major general in the Royal Lao Army.

According to Joel Bainerman, in Inside the Covert Operations of the CIA & Israel’s Mossad, it was at this point that Shackley and his Secret Team became involved in the drug trade, conducting their activities via General Vang Pao, the leader of the anti-communist forces in Laos.[77] Shackley employed Operation 40 members and JFK conspirators Carl E. Jenkins, David Morales, Raphael Quintero, Felix Rodriguez and Edwin Wilson in Laos. Shackley tasked David Morales to take charge at Pakse, a black operations base focused on political paramilitary action within Laos. Pakse was used to launch military operations against the Ho Chi Minh Trial. Shackley also brought Richard L. Armitage, a US Navy official based in Saigon’s US Office of Naval Operations, and Major General Richard Secord. All would be key agents of the CIA’s drug-trafficking, which evolved into the Iran-Contra affair.

McCoy reported that Shackley and Clines arranged a meeting in Saigon in 1968 between Santo Trafficante and Vang Pao to establish a heroin-smuggling operation from Southeast Asia to the United States. Vang Pao, an ethnic Hmong, commanded the Secret Army, also known as the Hmong Army, a highly-effective CIA-trained and supported force that fought against the Pathet Lao and the People’s Army of Vietnam. Vang Pao also enlisted 30,000 Hmong tribesmen to grow opium poppies in the service of the CIA. This was a top-secret project known as Operation X. Raw opium was cultivated by the Hmong and then trucked to Saigon, where it was distributed by the Binh Xuyen bandits. Members of the Corsican Gang took their share of the drugs and shipped them to Marseilles and then to America. The drugs were ferried out by Air America under the guise of humanitarian support.[78]

John Singlaub
John Singlaub

When Shackley became Saigon Station Chief from 1968 to 1972, he became the director of the Phoenix Program, which was designed, coordinated, and executed by the CIA to identify and “neutralize” key assets of the Viet Cong. The program was designed and executed by the CIA, the U.S. Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV), special forces operatives from the Australian Army Training Team Vietnam (AATTV), and the Republic of Vietnam’s (South Vietnam) security apparatus during the Vietnam War. By 1972, Phoenix operatives had neutralized 81,740 suspected National Liberation Front operatives, informants and supporters, of whom between 26,000 and 41,000 were killed.[79]

Shackley worked closely Singlaub, who had served as an officer in the OSS during World War II. He later joined the CIA and was sent to China where he worked with Philip Graham, Ray S. Cline, Richard Helms and E. Howard Hunt. In 1951, he became Deputy Chief of the CIA station in South Korea. He served for two years in Vietnam during the 1960s, and was commander of the MACV Studies and Observations Group, known as MACV-SOG, supervised by Shackley and Clines. MACV-SOG was established as a highly classified, multi-service special operations unit which conducted covert unconventional warfare operations prior to and during the Vietnam War. Serving under Singlaub for a period at the end of 1968 was Oliver North. The Deputy Air Wing Commander for the MACV-SOG was Richard Secord.[80] In that role, Singlaub was one of the commanders of the Phoenix program. Later he moved to Laos to work with Shackley.






[1] Dick Russell. The Man Who Knew Too Much (NY: Carroll & Graf, 1992), p. 707.

[2] Peter Dale Scott. Deep Politics and the Death of JFK (Berkeley: Univ. of California Pr., 1993), p. 212.

[3] Sterling & Peggy Seagrave. Gold Warriors.

[4] “Obituary: Cordelia Scaife May / Reclusive Mellon heiress known for her generosity.” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (January 27, 2005). Retrieved from

[5] Richard Harris Smith. OSS: The Secret History of America’s First Central Intelligence Agency (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981), pp. 84–85.

[6] Ibid., pp. 15–16.

[7] Lee & Shlain. Acid Dreams, p. 190.

[8] Sterling & Peggy Seagrave. Gold Warriors..

[9] G.W. Domhoff. The Higher Circles: The Governing Class in America; (New York: Random House, 1970), p. 252.

[10] Bryan Burrough. The Big Rich: The Rise and Fall of the Greatest Texas Oil Fortunes (New York: Penguin Books, 2009), p. 221.

[11] Daniel Junas. “Rising Moon: The Unification Church’s Japan Connection.” Institute for Global Security Studies (August 1989); “World Anti-Communist League.” Right Web (January 9, 1990).

[12] Sterling Seagrave & Peggy Seagrave. The Yamato Dynasty: The Secret History of Japan’s Imperial Family (New York: Broadway Books, 1999), p. 226-227.

[13] Sterling & Peggy Seagrave. Gold Warriors.

[14] for Robert B. Anderson’s association with intelligence operations, see Alan A. Block & Constance Weaver. All is Clouded by Desire: Global Banking, Money Laundering, and International Organized Crime (Praeger, 2004), p.28-32; Frank J. Prial, “Ex-Treasury Chief Gets 1-Month Term in Bank Fraud Case,” New York Times, (June 26, 1987).

[15] David Guyatt. “CIA Drug Trafficking.” DeepBlackLies. Retrieved from

[16] Paul DeRienzo. “Interview with Alfred McCoy.” Bear Cave (November 9, 1991).

[17] Larry Collins. “The CIA Drug Connection Is as Old as the Agency”, originally published in the International Herald Tribune, reprinted in the New York Times (December 3, 1993).

[18] Paul M. Bessel. “Bigotry and the Murder of Freemasonry.” (November 1994).

[19] Daniel S. Levy. Two-Gun Cohen: A Biography (St. Martin’s Press, 2002), pp. 117ff.

[20] Akten zur deutschen auswärtigen Politik 1918–1945/ADAP.

[21] Cheng’s Memoir, vol. 13.

[22] Fernando López. The Feathers of Condor: Transnational State Terrorism, Exiles and Civilian Anticommunism in South America (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2016), p. 309.

[23] Thomas Bodenheimer & Robert Gould. Rollback!: Right-wing Power in U.S. Foreign Policy (South End Press, 1989), p. 69.

[24] Jonathan Marshall, Peter Dale Scott & Jane Hunter. The Iran-Contra Connection (Black Rose Books Ltd., 1987), p. 64.

[25] Ibid., p. 65.

[26] Robert E. Herzstein. “Alfred Kohlberg: Counter-Subversion in the Global Struggle against Communism, 1944-1960.” Globalization, Empire, and Imperialism in Historical Perspective (University of North Carolina, June 1, 2006).

[27] Michael Schaller. “America’s Favorite War Criminal: Kishi Nobusuke and the Transformation of U.S.-Japan Relations.” Japan Policy Research Institute (July 11, 1995).

[28] Glenn Davis & John G. Roberts. Occupation Without Troops: Wall Street’s Half-Century Domination of Japanese Politics (Tuttle Publishing, 2012).

[29] “Moon’s Church Founded by Korean CIA Chief as Political Tool, Panel Says.” Washington Star (March 16, 1978).

[30] Frank Buchman. Remaking the World (Blandford Press, 1947), p. 166.

[31] George D. Chryssides. The A to Z of New Religious Movements (Scarecrow Press, 2006), p. 155.

[32] George D. Chryssides. Unifying or Dividing? Sun Myung Moon and the Origins of the Unification Church (University of Wolverhampton, U.K.. 2003).

[33] L.D. Weatherhead. The Christian Agnostic (England: Hodder and Stoughton, 1965). pp. 59–63; Young Oon Kim. Unification Theology: Some Additional Problems (1987).

[34] Weatherhead. The Christian Agnostic, p. 28.

[35] Ian R. K. Paisley. “Apostasy vs Fundamentalism.” Sermon given at the Martyrs Memorial Free Presbyterian Church, Belfast, Country Antrim, Ulster (March 2, 1969).

[36] Daniel Junas. “Rising Moon: The Unification Church’s Japan Connection.” Institute for Global Security Studies (August 1989); “World Anti-Communist League.” Right Web (January 9, 1990). Retrieved from

[37] David E. Kaplan & Alec Dubro. Yakuza: Japan’s Criminal Underworld (University of California Press, 2012).

[38] Recluse. “Secret Societies, Narcoterrorism, International Fascism, and the the World Anti-Communist League Part IV.” Visup (October 13, 2013). Retrieved from

[39] Christopher Reed. “The Rev Sun Myung Moon obituary.” The Guardian (September 2, 2012).

[40] Bob Fitrakis. “Reverend Moon: Cult leader, CIA asset, and Bush family friend is dead.” Free Press (September 4, 2102).

[41] Bellant. Old Nazis, the New Right and the Republican Party, p. 71.

[42] І.К. Патриляк. Військова діяльність ОУН(Б) у 1940—1942 роках. – Університет імені Шевченко \Ін-т історії України НАН України Київ, (2004).

[43] Голова уряду Я.Стецько майже до кінця серпня вільно проживав у Берліні і закидав посланнями відомства Розенберга, Ріббентропа,Гіммлера і Кейтеля) ОУН в 1941 році: документи: В 2-х ч Ін-т історії України НАН України К. (2006),  p.16.

[44] Christine Kulke. “Lwów.” In Geoffrey P. Megargee (ed.). Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945. Ghettos in German-Occupied Eastern Europe. II, part A (The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2012), p. 802.

[45] Ilyushyn I.I. Dzyobak & I.K. Patrylyak et al. та інші Організація українських націоналістів і Українська повстанська армія (“The Organization of the Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army”). Institute of History of Ukraine (Kiev: National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 2004), p. 63.

[46] John-Paul Himka. “The Lviv Pogrom of 1941: The Germans, Ukrainian Nationalists, and the Carnival Crowd.” Canadian Slavonic Papers. 53, 2–4 (2011), pp. 209–243.

[47] Statiev Alexander. The Soviet Counterinsurgency in the Western Borderlands (Cambridge University Press, 2010) p. 69.

[48] Mikhail Baranovskiy & Dmitry Mintz. Tango of Death. a True Story of Holocaust Survivors: Historical Book for Adults and Teens (Independently Published, 2020).

[49] D.Vyedeneyev; O. Lysenko (2009). “Завдання підривної діяльності проти Червоної армії обговорювалося на нараді під Берліном у квітні того ж року (1944) між керівником таємних операцій вермахту О.Скорцені й лідерами українських націоналістів С.бандерою та Я.Стецьком».” Ukrainian Historical Magazine. 3: 137.

[50] Per Anders Rudling. “The Return of the Ukrainian Far Right: The Case of VO Svoboda.” Wodak and Richardson. Analysing Fascist Discourse: European Fascism in Talk and Text (New York: Routledge, 2013). pp. 229–35.

[51] Paul H. Rosenberg and Foreign Policy In Focus. “Seven Decades of Nazi Collaboration: America’s Dirty Little Ukraine Secret.” The Nation (March 28, 2014).

[52] Audrey Panevin. “America’s Dark History of Supporting Ukrainian Fascists and War Criminals.” (Aug 10, 2015). Retrieved from

[53] Christopher Simpson. Blowback: America’s Recruitment of Nazis and Its Destructive Impact on Our Domestic and Foreign Policy (New York: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1988), p. 163.

[54] Ibid., p. 166.

[55] Audrey Panevin. “America’s Dark History of Supporting Ukrainian Fascists and War Criminals.” (Aug 10, 2015). Retrieved from

[56] Cristian Salazar & Randy Herschaft. “Revealed: How the CIA protected Nazi murderers.” The Independent (December 12, 2010).

[57] John Simkin. “American Security Council.” Spartacus Educational. Retrieved from

[58] Bellant. The Coors Connection, p. xviii.

[59] Bellant. Old Nazis, the New Right and the Republican Party, p. 75.

[60] Ibid., p. 73.

[61] Ibid., p. 6.

[62] Ibid., p. 3.

[63] Ibid., p. 11.

[64] Marshall, Dale Scott & Hunter. The Iran-Contra Connection, p. 49.

[65] Christie. Stefano Delle Chiaie, p. 42.

[66] Bellant. Old Nazis, the New Right and the Republican Party, p. 45.

[67] Sterling & Peggy Seagrave. Gold Warriors.

[68] Alan A. Block & Constance A. Weaver. All Is Clouded by Desire: Global Banking, Money Laundering, and International Organized Crime (Westport, CN.: Praeger, 2004), p. 38; citing Stephen Schlesinger & Stephen Kinzer. Bitter Fruit: The Untold Story of the American Coup in Guatemala (Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, 1983), 119. Cf. Peter Dale Scott. The War Conspiracy: JFK, 9/11, and the Deep Politics of War (Ipswich, MA: Mary Ferrell Foundation Press, 2008), 47, 67.

[69] Wall Street Journal (April 18, 1980).

[70] Mark Selden & Alvin Y. So. War and State Terrorism: The United States, Japan, and the Asia-Pacific in the Long Twentieth Century (Rowman & Littlefield, 2004), p. 187.

[71] R.T. Naylor. Hot Money and the Politics of Debt (New York: Linden/Simon and Schuster, 1987), 295 (“laundromat”). For Helliwell’s ownership, see Alan A. Block. Masters of Paradise (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1991), 165-66.

[72] Trento. Prelude to Terror, p. 27.

[73] Marshall, Dale Scott & Hunter. The Iran-Contra Connection, p. 33.

[74] Ibid., p. 32.

[75] Ibid., p. 33.

[76] Thomas Lask. “Bonanza in ‘Golden Triangle’.” The New York Times (July 21, 1972), p. A31.

[77] Bainerman. Inside the Covert Operations of the CIA & Israel’s Mossad.

[78] Larry Collins. “The CIA Drug Connection Is as Old as the Agency,” originally published in the International Herald Tribune, reprinted in the New York Times (December 3, 1993).

[79] Alfred W. McCoy. A question of torture: CIA interrogation, from the Cold War to the War on Terror (Macmillan, 2006). p. 68.

[80] Affidavit of Daniel P. Sheehan.

Volume Four

  1. MK-Ultra
  2. Council of Nine
  3. Old Right
  4. Novus Ordo Liberalism
  5. In God We Trust
  6. Fascist International
  7. Red Scare
  8. White Makes Right
  9. JFK Assassination
  10. The Civil Rights Movement
  11. Golden Triangle
  12. Crowleyanity
  13. Counterculture
  14. The Church of Satan
  15. The Esalen Institute
  16. Ordo ab Discordia
  17. Make Love, Not War
  18. Chaos Magick
  19. Nixon Years
  20. Vatican II
  21. Priory of Sion
  22. Nouvelle Droite
  23. Operation Gladio

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