ODESSA: ‘Fascist International’, Hitler Lives (Part 1) – By David Livingston

Source – ordoabchao.ca

  • “…. When Evita died in 1952, Juan Peron lost the considerable support that her reputation, and in 1955, with his government nearing a state of collapse, Peron escaped to safety in Spain, with the aid of Skorzeny, former SS members and the Nazi-trained secret police. In Spain, Skorzeny lived under the protection of Franco, whose victory in the Spanish Civil War was guaranteed by economic and military support from Hitler and Mussolini. When Franco became absolute ruler of Spain in 1939, he repaid his debt by allowing the Nazis to transform the country into a stronghold for German espionage. Skorzeny, Gehlen, and their network of collaborators gained enormous influence in Europe and Latin America. In his own words Skorzeny said, “you would be astonished to know all the names of kings, presidents of states, dictators, and fieldmarshals I have known.”

Fascist International – Hitler Lives 

Working with the infamous Nazi commando and then agent of the CIA and Mossad, Otto Skorzeny, Nazi Party Minister Martin Bormann’s plan to bring about the rise of a Fourth Reich—using the immense resources of his international economic empire and Nazi Gold, in what became known as Aktion Adlerflug (“Operation Eagle Flight”)—collaborated with a worldwide network of fascist organizations contributing to the establishment of a Fascist International, connected to the highest echelons of Western powers. Bormann had returned with Hitler to the Führerbunker in Berlin on January 16, 1945, as the Russian Army approached the city. In his final will, signed on April 29, 1945, and witnessed by Bormann and Goebbels, Hitler disinherited SS chief Heinrich Himmler, expelled him from the party and all his offices, and named Bormann his successor instead. Goering was expelled as well, and in his place Grand Admiral Dönitz (1891 – 1980) was appointed as president of the Reich and as supreme commander of the armed forces. Although Goebbels was made Reichschancellor, he would shortly after commit suicide. Bormann, now the newly created Party Minister, then sent copies of all these documents by special courier to Doenitz.[1] Borman was certain, according to Paul Manning, that “he and he alone, Party Minister Bormann, would be left as leader, competent to command the global network of commerce he had painstakingly fostered. With this, Germany would move again into the forefront of world economic leadership.”[2]

Admiral Karl Dönitz (1891 – 1980)
Admiral Karl Dönitz (1891 – 1980)

According to Michael Bar-Zohar, in The Avengers, Admiral Dönitz declared in 1943, “The German U-boat fleet is proud to have made an earthly paradise, an impregnable fortress for the Führer, somewhere in the world.”[3] Many of the clues spurring various researchers are found in an heavily redacted FBI file from 1945, and declassified in the 1990’s, which indicate that the Bureau investigated some of the repots that Hitler was still alive. Contained in the file are all items the Bureau was able to gather on the case, in varying degrees of credibility, including letters to and from J. Edgar Hoover, newspaper articles, photographs, and accounts of witness testimonies. For examples, the file includes an article from the The Springfield Daily News, which reported that a German informant told the International News service in July 15, 1946, “The S.S. men firmly believe that Hitler is not dead but in hiding, waiting for the day when he can come forward again and take over the leadership of Germany.” As well, the French newspaper France-Soir, on October 27, 1945, quoted Otto Abetz, Germany’s wartime Ambassador to France, who was connected with the Synarchist movement of the Vichy regime, as saying that Hitler “is certainly not dead,” and added that he “was not a coward—I believe one day he will return.”

As Bar-Zohar noted, although Dönitz didn’t indicate what part of the world, it was “fairly obvious it was in South America.”[4] After Hitler committed suicide, Bormann and others attempted to flee Berlin on May 2 to avoid capture by the Soviets. Bormann is believed to have probably committed suicide. However, according to Manning, Bormann escaped to Argentina disguised as a Jesuit priest, with the help of Heinrich Mueller (1900 – 1945), the head of Hitler’s notorious Gestapo secret state police. Along with his subordinate Adolf Eichmann and his superior Reinhard Heinrich, otherwise known as “The Blond Beast,” Mueller was a key actor in the execution of the Holocaust, having also attended the 1942 Wannsee Conference, which saw the official implementation of the “Final Solution.” Referring to Bormann’s post-war activity in exile, Manning wrote in 1981:


A man of indescribably vast power and the sole trustee of Hitler’s secrets after May 1, 1945, in the Berlin bunker, Bormann continues to be the most controversial, perplexing figure of our times. There are those who wish him dead and continue to claim he is; for were he to emerge, it would embarrass the governments that assisted in his escape, the industrial and financial leaders who benefited from his acumen and transferred their capital to neutral nations in the closing days of World War II, and the businessmen of four continents who profited from the 750 corporations he established through- out the world as depositories of money, patents, bearer bonds, and shares in blue chip industries of the United States and Europe.[5]


Martin Bormann (1900 – 1945)

When Bormann gave the go-ahead at the Hotel Maison Rouge in Strasbourg on August 10, 1944, in his overall flight capital program in anticipation of Germany impending defeat, more than $6 billion of Nazi money flowed into Buenos Aires for investment there and elsewhere in Latin America.[6] As recounted by Glenn Infield, Skorzeny traveled between Spain and Argentina to retrieve Bormann’s Nazi Gold which had been cleverly expropriated by Evita Peron, the wife of the Argentinian president, Juan Peron (1895 – 1974). Argentina had already become a haven for numerous ex-Nazis fleeing prosecution through the ODESSA ratlines with assistance from the Vatican and American intelligence. Juan Peron was the most blatantly pro-Nazi and pro-Fascist government in South America. Peron, who served as Argentina’s military attaché in Rome before the war, was an avid admirer of Hitler and Mussolini and encouraged Nazi immigration in the 1940s. By 1943, the U.S. began suspecting Argentina of aiding the Nazis despite their claim of neutrality, as Peron was helping them establish a spying network in the country. Peron was elected President of Argentina three times, serving from 1946 to 1955, when he was overthrown by the Revolución Libertadora, and then from 1973 until his death in 1974.

Otto Skorzeny (left) and Juan Perón (center).
Otto Skorzeny (left) and Juan Perón (center).

Despite his support for the Nazis, and believing the Nuremberg trials were a “disgrace” and that the Allies deserved to lose the war, he sought out Jewish Argentines as government advisers.[7] The Jewish Virtual Library writes that while he had sympathized with the Axis powers, “Peron also expressed sympathy for Jewish rights and established diplomatic relations with Israel in 1949. Since then, more than 45,000 Jews have immigrated to Israel from Argentina.”[8] Today Argentina has a population of more than 200,000 Jewish citizens, the largest in Latin America, the third-largest in the Americas, and the sixth-largest in the world.[9]

In his 2002 book, The Real Odessa: Smuggling the Nazis to Peron’s Argentina, Argentine researcher Uki Goni revealed that Peron actively encouraged Nazi and Fascist war criminals to make their home in Argentina. 300 Nazis achieved responded to the invitation with support from Peron after he came to power in Argentina in 1946.[10] Building off numerous rumors that began to circulate immediately after the war, several recent theories have proposed that Hitler himself found his way to South America, which the surviving Nazis used as their base for the creation of the Fourth Reich. Soviet records claimed the bodies of Hitler and Eva Braun were burned and their remains were buried and exhumed repeatedly, making confirmation difficult. However, the narrative that Hitler did not commit suicide, but instead escaped Berlin, was first presented to the general public by Marshal Georgy Zhukov at a press conference on June 9, 1945, on orders from Stalin.[11] When asked at the Potsdam Conference in July 1945 how Hitler died, Stalin answered that he was either living “in Spain or Argentina.”[12]

A documentary film, titled Revealed: Hitler in Argentina, inspired by the book Hitler’s Escape by Italian journalist Patrick Burnside, claims that Hitler did not commit suicide in his bunker at the end of World War II, but survived and fled to Argentina. The filmmakers, Noam Shalev and Pablo Weschler, believe that British intelligence officer and historian Hugh Trevor-Roper’s investigation was rushed and “unprofessional.” Interestingly, Trevor-Roper was also the author of an article published in the February 1960 issue of Encounter, a cover of the CIA in its “cultural cold war,” titled “Three Foreigners and the Philosophy of the English Revolution,” about the Hartlib Circle, the group of Rosicrucians who founded the Invisible College, which eventually became the Royal Society, and from which emerged English Freemasonry. The first detailed investigation by Western powers began in November 1945 after Dick White, then head of counter-intelligence in the British sector of Berlin, had Trevor-Roper investigate the matter to counter the Soviet claims. Trevor-Roper’s most widely read book was titled The Last Days of Hitler (1947), the results of his interviews with a range of witnesses and study of surviving documents, where he claimed that Hitler was dead and had not escaped from Berlin.

In The Hitler Survival Myth, Donald McKale identifies the earliest source of the myth of Hitler’s escape to the southern hemisphere with the surrender of a German submarine in early July 1945 in Argentina, reported several by several Argentine newspapers. One paper, Critica, claimed on July 17, 1945, that Hitler and his wife Eva Braun landed from a U-530 in Antarctica, and mentioned the 1938-39 expedition when a “new Berchtesgaden” was “likely to have been built.” The report was widely disseminated through Le Monde, New York Times and the Chicago Times.

While several items in the FBI file were proven to be hoaxes, several others more difficult to disprove were consistent reports that Hitler had been seen in Argentina. A report from the Bureau’s Los Angeles office to Director Hoover on June 5, 1947, sent to Hoover who then instructed agents to probe the “fantastic story.” It describes a town called “Casino” near Rio Grande in Brazil, which appeared to be “practically of one hundred percent German population” and consisting entirely of luxurious villas and the Grande Hotel de Casino. FBI agents interviewed an informant, who claimed to be a former French resistance fighter. According to this witness, “This was an unusual community in as much as it was necessary to secure a pass to enter the vicinity of the town.” The informant first became suspicious when he observed one of the hotel maids giving a “Heil Hitler” salute. The man also claimed to have spotted Hitler and Eva Braun, described the Hitler as “clean shaven” and “emaciated” and claimed he was thrown out of the hotel after trying to take pictures of them.

Eden Hotel in La Falda, Argentina

A secret memo, dated September 21, 1945, written by Hoover, which references the account of an individual from the Argentine government, told to a reporter of The Los Angeles Examiner, who claimed to be one of four men who met Hitler after he arrived on an Argentine shore by submarine about two weeks after the fall of Berlin in 1945. Hitler supposedly arrived with fifty or so others and went into hiding in the towns of San Antonio, Videma, Neuquen, Muster, Carmena, and Rason, staying with German families. Weschler points to the lines in the report that show that the FBI believed that if Hitler was ever trouble, he could find a safe haven with his close friends Walter and Ida Eichhorn in La Falda Argentina. The FBI report paraphrased a quote from Ida Eichhorn: “if Hitler should at any time get into difficulty wherein it was necessary for him to find a safe retreat, he would find such safe retreat at her hotel (La Falda), where they had already made the necessary preparations.” The Eichhorns were the owners of the famous and luxurious Hotel Eden whose guests included Albert Einstein, the Prince of Wales, the Duke of Savoy, famous Nicaraguan poet Rubén Dario, and Italian conductor Arturo Toscanini. The Eichhorns contributed more than 30,000 marks, approximately US $1 million today, to Hitler and the Nazi party, collected from sympathizers and German expatriates in Argentina, and transferring it to the Nazi Ministry of Propaganda in the name of Joseph Goebbels. Weschler interviewed several former employees of the hotel who claimed to have met and waited on Hitler after the war. Weschler said that his research indicated that Hitler moved on from the hotel to an isolated rural estate in Argentina, where he lived out his days with Eva and their two daughters, and that he died in the mid-1960s.[13]

The 2011 book Grey Wolf: The Escape of Adolf Hitler, by British authors Simon Dunstan and Gerrard Williams, and the 2014 docudrama film by Williams based on it, also suggest that a number of U-boats took certain Nazis and their loot to Argentina, first staying at Hacienda San Ramon, east of San Carlos de Bariloche, a community with a large German population. In 1995, Bariloche made headlines in the international press when it became known as “The Third Reich Capital in Exile.” According to historian Hermann Rueder “The old Nazis would celebrate, often not so secretly, all the high days of Nazism there – Hitler’s birthday, the founding of the Third Reich, numerous other anniversaries.”[14] Bariloche provided safe a haven for Nazi war criminals, including former SS Hauptsturmführer Erich Priebke (1913 – 2013) and SS officer Reinhard Kopps (1914 – 2001, known in Argentina as Juan Maler. One of Priebke’s regular guests in Bariloche was SS colonel Walter Rauff (1906 – 1984), an aide to Reinhard Heydrich who was infamous for his mobile gas chamber that murdered 100,000. Rauff would subsequently go on to work for Israeli intelligence.[15]

San Ramon belonged to the Prince Stephan of Schaumburg-Lippe (1891 – 1965), part of the family of Prince Bernhard of Netherlands, who was himself an SS before he helped in founding the infamous Bilderberg Group. Stephan’s brother, Prince Friedrich Christian of Schaumburg-Lippe (1906 – 1983) was an ardent supporter of the Nazis, eventually becoming an upper privy councillor and adjutant to Goebbels. According to the authors of Grey Wolf, Hitler then moved to a Bavarian-styled mansion at Inalco, close to the Chilean border. Around 1954, he and Eva left and moved to Neuquén with their daughter, Ursula (“Uschi”), and Hitler died in February 1962.

The authors of Grey Wolf maintain that the Nazis were supported by Juan Peron, who with his wife Evita, had been receiving money from the Nazis for some time. According to Ladislas Farago in Aftermath, the nearly complete record of this operation was preserved in the archives of Coordination Federal in Buenos Aires, in files of the FBI, and in the archives of the British Admiralty. As reported by Paul Manning, as early as 1941, Bormann regarded Argentina as the most likely haven for himself and Hitler if Germany fell. Without Hitler’s knowledge, Bormann utilized Skorzeny during the war to ship money in armored trucks to southern Spain, to then be taken by U-Boat to to Argentina.[16] Skorzeny became a close confidante of Juan Peron, and having gained his trust, Bormann began to arrange for the transfer of Nazi assets to Argentina, transferring funds to Juan and Eva Peron through his personal account in the Deutsche Bank of Buenos Aires. The flow of money reached a total of $100.000.000 by 1955 when Juan Peron was forced into exile.[17]

Evita Peron (1919 – 1952)
Evita Peron (1919 – 1952)

Evita had first learned of the money from Rudolf Ludwig Freude, a German-Argentine banker who was handling the shipments to Buenos Aires with the assistance of Heinrich Dörge, an aide to Hjalmar Schacht. The wily Evita convinced Freude and Dörge that the safest option would be the have the money deposited in her name, until Bormann could come to reclaim it. However, Juan and Evita began managing these assets as if they were their own. In 1947, Eva embarked on her “Rainbow Tour” of Europe, which was featured on the cover of Time, meeting with numerous dignitaries and heads of state, including Francisco Franco, Pope Pius XII, and Charles de Gaulle, and Aristotle Onassis. In his biography of Onassis’ daughter Christina, Nigel Dempster reported that Aristotle paid Evita $10,000 to spend the night with her.[18] The trip also included a stop in Switzerland, where she deposited over $800 million in numbered accounts in various Swiss banks.[19]

Skorzeny, who was still in a denazification camp, heard about her scheme, but noted that it had come to his attention that “the only way she could be softened up was to get into bed with her when she was lonely.”[20] In 1948, with three former SS officers dressed in US Military Police uniforms, Skorzeny escaped from with the help of American intelligence. Skorzeny then hid out at a farm in Bavaria been rented by Schacht’s niece, Countess Ilse Lüthje, during which time he made contact with Reinhard Gehlen, and recruited for the Gehlen Organization.[21] As recounted by Infield, after arriving in Argentina in 1949 to reclaim the Nazi wealth. Learning of a plot against her life, Skorzeny arranged a feigned thwarting of the plot, thus becoming, in her eyes, the hero who saved her life. After being appropriately “softened,” Evita began transferring the Nazi assets into his name.[22]


Gehlen Organization

Reinhard Gehlen, recruited by the CIA to create the Gehlen Organization, which became the German BND

The Gehlen Organization was a precursor to the Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND) which was formed in 1956, as the official foreign intelligence agency of West Germany, which had recently joined NATO, and in close cooperation with the CIA. Under the leadership of Allen Dulles, the CIA embarked on a project of hiring ex-Nazis in Egypt, who were led by Gehlen, Schacht and Skorzeny. When Evita died in 1952, Juan Peron lost the considerable support that her reputation, and in 1955, with his government nearing a state of collapse, Peron escaped to safety in Spain, with the aid of Skorzeny, former SS members and the Nazi-trained secret police. In Spain, Skorzeny lived under the protection of Franco, whose victory in the Spanish Civil War was guaranteed by economic and military support from Hitler and Mussolini. When Franco became absolute ruler of Spain in 1939, he repaid his debt by allowing the Nazis to transform the country into a stronghold for German espionage. Skorzeny, Gehlen, and their network of collaborators gained enormous influence in Europe and Latin America. In his own words Skorzeny said, “you would be astonished to know all the names of kings, presidents of states, dictators, and fieldmarshals I have known.”[23]

Léon Degrelle (1906 – 1994)
Léon Degrelle (1906 – 1994)

Evola’s message spread throughout European fascist and traditionalist networks, from Franco’s Spain, where ex-Nazi Leon Degrelle (1906 – 1994) was active, to the expansive fascist and traditionalist circles of Latin America.[24] Degrelle was a Belgian politician and Nazi collaborator, who founded Rexism and later joined the Waffen SS, being made an SS-Obersturmbannführer in the early months of 1945. After studying at a Jesuit college, Degrelle became attracted to the ideas of Charles Maurras and French Integralism. In 1936, he met Mussolini and Hitler, who both provided Rexism with funds and ideological support. Hitler once said that if he had a son, he would want him to be just like Degrelle.[25] Degrelle also met with Falange leader José Antonio Primo de Rivera and the Iron Guard’s Corneliu Codreanu. Degrelle became acquainted with the cartoonist Hergé, and later claimed that he had inspired the creation of The Adventures of Tintin.[26] After the war, Degrelle had been brought to Madrid by Skorzeny who made him his chief aide.[27] In 1954, Spain granted him Spanish citizenship under the name José Leon Ramírez Reina.

Johann von Leers, a.k.a. “Omar Amin” (1902 – 1965)
Johann von Leers, a.k.a. “Omar Amin” (1902 – 1965)

In 1953, Skorzeny became a military advisor to Egyptian President Mohammed Naguib, and recruited a staff of former SS and Wehrmacht officers to train the Egyptian Army. Naguib had ousted King Farouk out of power in a year earlier in a CIA-assisted coup.[28] Skorzeny made sure that whoever he selected was a diehard Nazi, an excellent military tactician, and anti-Semitic. Among them were former Wehrmacht generals Wilhelm Fahrmbacher and Oskar Munzel; SS General Oskar Dirlewanger, known as the “Butcher of Warsaw”; Adolf Eichmann, recently back from Argentina; Leopold Gleim, the head of the Gestapo Department for Jewish Affairs in Poland; and Joachim Daemling, former chief of the Gestapo in Düsseldorf.[29] In addition to training the army, Skorzeny also trained Arab volunteers in commando tactics for possible use against British troops stationed in the Suez Canal zone. Several Palestinian refugees also received commando training, and Skorzeny planned their raids into Israel via the Gaza Strip in 1953-1954. One of these Palestinians was Yasser Arafat.[30]

A steady stream of Third Reich veterans poured into Egypt, and Cairo became a safe haven for several thousand Nazi fugitives, including former SS Captain Alois Brunner, Adolf Eichmann’s chief deputy. Johannes von Leers (1902 – 1965), Goebbels’s former anti-Semitic propaganda expert, was then heading Nasser’s anti-Jewish broadcasting service.[31] As a young man, Leers wrote propaganda against Zionist settlement in Mandatory Palestine, and befriended Haj Amin al-Husseini, “Hitler’s Mufti,” even before the World War II. He joined the Nazi Party in 1929, and after joining the SA reserves, he became a member of the SS in 1935. He escaped to Argentina in 1950, remaining there until the Peron’s overthrow in 1955. During his time in Buenos Aires, Leers, edited the National Socialist and fascist journal, Der Weg (“The Way”), and contributed to an anti-Jewish campaign commissioned by the embassy of Egypt in Argentina. He later moved to Egypt where was offered safe refuge by al-Husseini, and eventually converted to Islam, taking the name of Omar Amin.[32]

When the CIA’s chosen man, Gamal Nasser—an admirer of Hitler who had worked for German Intelligence against the British in the World War II—became president of Egypt in 1956, he asked the agency for assistance in establishing a similar organization in his country. Not wanting to become involved, the CIA referred him to Gehlen, then head of the BND, who recommended Skorzeny. Urged by Hjalmar Schacht, Skorzeny had Heinrich Mueller in Brazil send him a team of secret police specialists. Mueller’s team, known as the General Intelligence Service, was so effective that Colonel Muammar Gaddafi, then the new revolutionary leader of his country of Libya, asked Nasser to make them available to him as well.[33]

Despite his Nazi past and collaboration with enemies of Israel, Skorzeny was recruited by the Mossad from 1962. He apparently agreed to work with Israel on the condition that Simon Wiesenthal erase his name from the list of wanted Nazi war criminals. Nevertheless, though Wiesenthal rejected his request, Skorzeny decided in the end to cooperate with the Mossad anyway.[34] His work for the Mossad included compiling a list of German scientists working in Egypt. Skorzeny also found for Mossad the names of many front companies in Europe that were procuring and shipping components for Egypt’s military projects. On Israel’s request, he assassinated German rocket scientist Heinz Krug who was working with Egypt, and mailed a letter-bomb which killed five Egyptians at a military rocket site. The executions were led by a future prime minister of Israel, Yitzhak Shamir, who was then head of the Mossad’s special operations unit.[35]



Baron Julius Evola (1898 – 1974), member of the Ur Group and the Brotherhood of the Polaires
Baron Julius Evola (1898 – 1974), member of the Ur Group and the Brotherhood of the Polaires
Junio Valerio Borghese (1906 – 1974), nicknamed “The Black Prince.”
Junio Valerio Borghese (1906 – 1974), nicknamed “The Black Prince.”

The leading ideologue of the Fascist International was American fascist Francis Parker Yockey (1917 – 1960), and whose post-war career and connections to worldwide far-right, including links to Skorzeny, are explored in detail in Kevin Coogan’s modern-day classic The Dreamer of the Day. Yockey was active with many far-right causes around the world and remains one of the seminal influences in many extremist right movements. After reading Oswald Spengler and meeting with Carl Schmitt, Yockey became influenced by the ideologues of the Conservative Revolution, including Karl Haushofer. Yockey had associated with fascists during the Interwar period and during the Second World War including Charles Coughlin, the German-American Bund, the National German-American Alliance, the Silver Shirts, and the America First Movement, among others. Yockey applied for a post at the OSS but was refused a job there because of his Nazi sympathies. Yockey is best known for the 1948 book Imperium: The Philosophy of History and Politics, written under the pen name Ulick Varange. Yockey asserted that the fall of the Third Reich was a temporary setback that opened the way for a future return. The book, which was dedicated to Adolf Hitler, “the hero of the Second World War,” was endorsed by far-right thinkers around the world, including Julius Evola.

Imperium, explained Coogan, appealed especially to the most radical wing of Italy’s Movimento Sociale Italiano (MSI), which was formed in 1946 by Evolian supporters of Mussolini. As fascism was developing in the United States, a parallel development was happening in Europe. European fascists were inspired in their emphasis on the value of a common European identity—to offset both American and Russian hegemony—by the examples of Evola and the Waffen SS’ “heroic” defense of Europe against the advancing Soviet army.[36] At the end of World War II, James Jesus Angleton rescued Italian fascist Junio Valerio Borghese (1906 – 1974), an Italian Navy commander during the regime of Benito Mussolini. Borghese was then tried and convicted of collaboration with the Nazis, but offered a reduced sentence, due to his glorious expeditions during the war. Borghese was born into one of the leading families of the Black Nobility, the House of Borghese, of which Pope Paul V was a notable member and which maintains close ties to the Vatican. With his record as a war hero, Borghese became a figurehead for pro-fascist, anti-communist groups, acquiring the nickname of the “Black Prince.” Borghese wrote an introduction to Men Among the Ruins by Evola, a book which affirmed Evola’s political ideology of a neo-fascist aristocracy. In 1954, Regnery published Borghese’s memoirs, Sea Devils.

The MSI is seen as the successor to both Mussolini’s Republican Fascist Party (PFR) as well as the original National Fascist Party (PNF). From the end of the war to the late 1980s, the MSI was the chief organization of the European far-right. Evola inspired the MSI and other extreme-right groups by proffering the ideal of the “active nihilist,” who is prepared to act with violence against modern decadence. Giorgio Almirante, the MSI leader, hailed Evola as “our Marcuse—only better.”[37] Evola’s journalism and his pamphlet Orientamenti (Orientations) stressed a “legionary spirit” and “warrior ethic” and outlined how ideals, elites and order could be maintained by the MSI, police and army taking over the state.[38] According to Adriano Romauldi, a leading neo-fascist, Evola was the intellectual hero of militant right-wing youth in Italy “because the teaching of Evola is also a philosophy of total war.”[39]

The MSIwas closely affiliated with Organisation armée secrète (OAS), an ultra-right faction within the French Army, which was joined by former members of the synarchist Cagoule, former Wehrmacht, SS and Vichy officials.[40] The OAS had been officially created in Francoist Spain, in Madrid in January 1961, in support of a conspiracy to block President Charles de Gaulle’s plans to grant independence to Algeria. The OAS attempted to prevent Algerian independence by acts of sabotage and assassination in both France and French Algerian territories. In Madrid, the OAS teamed up with Skorzeny who trained leading components of both the OAS and the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) in Algeria.[41]


Socialist Reich Party (SRP)

SRP leaders Fritz Dorls, Otto Ernst Remer, and Wolf von Westarp (1952)
SRP leaders Fritz Dorls, Otto Ernst Remer, and Wolf von Westarp (1952)
Hans-Ulrich Rudel (1916 – 1982)
Hans-Ulrich Rudel (1916 – 1982)

The MSI was part of the New European Order together with, among others, the Falange and the Socialist Reich Party (SRP). By the initiative of the MSI, the European Social Movement (ESM) was established as a neo-fascist Europe-wide alliance in 1951 that looked to a European Nation highly influenced by British fascist Oswald Mosley’s Union Movement. The cornerstone of Mosley’s Union Movement was his Europe a Nation policy. Mosley launched his Europe a Nation campaign after World War II as a counterbalance to the growing power of the US and USSR. Where Mosley had previously been associated with a peculiarly British form of fascism with the British Union of Fascists, the Union Movement attempted to redefine fascism by stressing the importance of developing a European nationalism rather than country-based nationalisms. Europe a Nation consisted of the idea that all European states should come together and pool their resources, including their colonies, to work as one giant super-state under a system of corporatism.

The MSI was also part of a more radical splinter group of the ESM, the New European Order, created in 1951, together with, among others, the Falange and the Socialist Reich Party (SRP).[42] The SRP was a West German neo-Nazi political party founded in the aftermath of the World War II as an openly Nazi-oriented split-off from the national conservative Deutsche Rechtspartei (DRP), a political party that emerged in 1946 in the British zone of Allied-occupied Germany after World War I.

The SRP was established in 1949 in Hamelin by Otto Ernst Remer (1912 – 1997), a former Wehrmacht major general, who played a decisive role in stopping Operation Valkyrie, the July 20 plot of 1944 to assassinate Hitler. Remer took charge of the German army in Berlin and was assisted by Skorzeny in rounding up the conspirators. Hitler said to him, “You, Skorzeny, saved the Third Reich.”[43] As a reward he was promoted to major general and Hitler’s chief bodyguard for the rest of the war. Remer is considered the “Godfather” of the postwar German neo-Nazi movement.[44] After the war, the Americans also tried to recruit Remer, like they did Skorzeny, but he spurned them, opting instead to collaborate with the Soviets Union. Nevertheless, Remer and Skorzeny remained friends and stayed in contact for years. “Together,” explains Martin Lee, in The Beast Reawakens, “they helped lay the groundwork for a multifaceted neofascist revival that gained alarming momentum in the post-Cold War era.”[45]

The foundation of the SRP was backed by former Luftwaffe hero Hans-Ulrich Rudel (1916 – 1982) who was one of the most popular and visible figures of the post-war neo-Nazi scene. In 1945, Rudel had fled to Argentina where he became a popular and prominent member of the country’s large Nazi community under the protection of the Peron government. There he became the head of a rescue organization called the Kameradenwerk, which assisted Nazi fugitives and war criminals in escaping from Europe. With the assistance of Otto Skorzeny, Rudel played an important role in recruiting large numbers of former Nazi fugitives from Argentina for key posts in Egypt. Yockey spent part of 1953 meeting Gamal Nasser in Cairo and maintaining links with Skorzeny.[46]

The SRP emerged as West Germany’s leading far Right organization.[47] The SRP saw itself as legitimate heir of the Nazi Party and campaigned for its reestablishment. Most party members were former members of the NSDAP. The SRP denounced Chancellor Konrad Adenauer as an American puppet and claimed that Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz was appointed by Hitler as the last legitimate President of the German Reich after Hitler’s suicide.[48] It denied the existence of the Holocaust, and advocated Europe—led by a reunited German Reich—as a “third force” against both capitalism and communism. The SRP was banned in 1952 for being a successor to the Nazi Party. Risking jail, Remer fled to Egypt. There, he served as an advisor to Gamal Abdel Nasser and worked with other expatriate Germans assisting Arab states with weapons development. He was a frequent acquaintance of Johannes von Leers.[49] In 1956, Remer initiated operations in Damascus, where he was active in the weapons trade. The Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN) was one of his main customers.


Northern League

Leader of the Nationalist Socialist Movement Colin Jordan and hid wife Françoise Dior.
Leader of the Nationalist Socialist Movement Colin Jordan and hid wife Françoise Dior.
Roger Pearson (born 1927)

A politically active member of the ESM, Arthur Ehrhardt, the ex-Waffen SS officer and author on warfare who became a leading figure in the post-war neo-Nazi movement.[50] Following the end of the World War II, Ehrhardt became a strong supporter of Mosley’s Europe a Nation ideal and to this end was the founder and editor of the magazine Nation Europa in 1949. He was also a member of the Northern League, founded by Roger Pearson, a notorious racialist, and a close associate of Wickliffe Draper, founder of the Pioneer Fund, which supported most of Pearson’s publishing ventures.[51] Pearson is a British anthropologist, eugenics advocate and publisher of political and academic journals. Pearson was the recipient of the Grand Cross of Merit of the Knights of Malta.[52] In the late 1950s, Pearson founded the Northern League as an organization that recruited ex-officers of the SS and promoted Pan-Germanism, anti-Semitism and Neo-Nazi racial ideology.[53] Its stated purpose was to save the “Nordic race” from “annihilation of our kind” and to “fight for survival against forces which would mongrelize our race and civilization.”[54]

Hans F.K. Günther (1891 – 1968)
Hans F.K. Günther (1891 – 1968)

Leading members of the Northern League included former Nazis like Franz Altheim, a former assistant to Heinrich Himmler, and Nazi racial eugenicist Hans F.K. Günther.[55] Known as the “Race Pope,” Gunther provided the theoretical foundation for the Nazi regime’s racial theory and was regarded as its official ideological spokesperson on race. Timothy Ryback, who examined the books retrieved from Adolf Hitler’s private collection, notes that Hitler owned six books by Günther.[56] Among Günther’s disciples was Bruno Beger who, after an expedition to Tibet, concluded that the Tibetan peoples had characteristics that placed them between the Nordic and Mongol races, and were thus superior to other East Asians.

The FBI noted that Peter Huxley-Blythe was the Northern League’s “representative in the U.S.”[57] Huxley-Blythe was an associate of Yockey and of Guy Chesham and Baroness von Pflugl who helped to finance the publication of Yockey’s Imperium. During his time in the Navy, Huxley-Blythe discovered that he had inherited some of his father’s skills as a hypnotist. Convinced that the technique could be developed as a clinical tool, in the late 1960s he founded the Blythe College of Hypnosis and Psychotherapy (now the National College of Hypnosis and Psychotherapy), wrote two books, Hypnotism – its power and practice (1971) and Self Hypnotism — its potential and practice (1976), and was invited to train doctors and dentists in the use of hypnosis in Sweden and Britain.[58]

Almost every prominent English neo-Nazi joined the Northern League, including Colin Jordan and John Tindall. Jordan and Tyndall belonged to the League of Empire Loyalists, created in 1954 by A.K. Chesterton to protest against “colored” immigration and the “scuttle” of the British Empire, which served as a crucible for a number of British fascists. Other active members included Earnest Sevier Cox, the American segregationist and a personal friend of Black separatist Marcus Garvey, and founder of the Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America.[59] Cox suggested to Pearson that they should hold a meeting at Detmold, West Germany, near what was then believed to be the site where the Germanic tribes defeated the Romans in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, and “prevented the mongrelization of Germany.”[60] The battle was won by Teutonic warrior Arminius, the namesake of Guido von Lists’ Armanenschaft. The first meeting of the Northern League was held there in 1959, with speakers including Cox and Günther, though Günther’s participation had to be kept at a low profile.[61]


American Fascist

AFC member George Sylvester Viereck, personal friend of Adolf Hitler, Aleister Crowley and Alfred Kinsey
AFC member George Sylvester Viereck, personal friend of Adolf Hitler, Aleister Crowley and Alfred Kinsey
Francis Parker Yockey (1917 – 1960)
Francis Parker Yockey (1917 – 1960)

In 1946, Yockey obtained a position in the US War Department as attorney for the Nuremberg Trials, presumably to help Nazi war criminals being tried. In 1950, Yockey worked with Gerald K. Smith’s Christian Nationalist Party. In the 1950s, Yockey worked closely with H. Keith Thompson (1922 – 2002), a friend of George Sylvester Viereck, and who served as a registered foreign agent for Otto Remer’s Socialist Reich Party (SRP).[62] George Lincoln Rockwell accused Thompson of trying to infiltrate the ANP, and claimed that Thompson circulated among New York’s homosexual community and was particularly close to some “Nazi pansies… a group of queers who call themselves the ‘real’ National Socialists.”[63] Viereck, who was fascinated with sex, made no secret of his homosexuality, and was interested in orgies since his youth. Viereck was imprisoned from 1942 to 1947, when he wrote his memoirs, Men Into Beasts, the first original title of 1950s gay pulp fiction. After he got out of prison, Viereck held sex orgies at his suite in Manhattan’s Hotel Belleclaire where bisexuality was encouraged. The parties were attended by his close friend Nikola Tesla, Dr. Harry Benjamin, the sex-change-operation pioneer, and Alfred Kinsey.[64]

Part of Thompson’s reason for writing a series about his own fascism for June 1952 issue of Expose, was to reveal the activities of the FBI, ADL and NANL and the role of the ADL in funding “anti-Semitic” and “neo-nazi” groups, such as the National Renaissance Party.[65] The ADL was founded in 1913 by B’nai B’rith. Non-Sectarian Anti-Nazi League (NANL), another division of the ADL, was founded in 1933 by the Sabbatean Rabbi Stephen Wise, who was head of the American Jewish Congress (AJC).[66] Thompson identified Weiss, who was considered to be the secret head of the NRP,[67] as being encouraged by the ADL.[68]

A key state witness against Viereck when he was accused of being a German agent was Sanford Griffith, whom Thompson referred to as an “ADL master spy.”[69] Griffith had been operating since before the war, and had infiltrated the America First movement. Griffith would give Thompson ideas and money when publicity flagged. Thompson however claims that he gave Griffith a “completely inaccurate picture,” but convincing enough to warrant further funds from the ADL.[70]

Thompson then discovered how the ADL operated as “provocateurs and instigators” among the Right, and why they are often “the most dependable source of funds.”[71] In particular, Mana Truhill, a petty criminal and paid agent of ADL and NANL, attained a leading position in the NRP. Truhill was a Communist who had been instructed at the Communist party’s Jefferson School of Social Science. Thompson regarded the NRP as thoroughly compromised and used by the ADL and others.[72] Among Thompson’s associates was the Left-liberal Jewish publisher Lyle Stuart, who published Veireck’s books, and who claimed in Expose that the ADL had secretly backed anti-Semitic publications like Common Sense in order to keep tabs on them.[73]

Thompson began his political career before America’s entry into World War II when he campaigned against involvement as a member of the German American Bund and the America First Committee (AFC), along with the later founders of the American Security Council. In 1941, Thompson came to the attention of Nazi Germany and was appointed as a Special Agent of the Sicherheitsdienst (SD) Overseas Intelligence Unit of the SS, which reported directly to Himmler. The contract, signed by Hitler himself, was captured by a US Army team. After the war, Thompson befriended Skorzeny and worked alongside him in setting up ODESSA.[74]

Despite his involvement with the fascist causes, as a college student in 1940, Thompson worked to support the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt and Henry Wallace to the presidency and vice presidency respectively. Thompson was regarded as a communist sympathizer during his days in the Navy and the Marine Corps, being identified by the FBI as a member of the pro-Soviet Progressive Party, and of the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship. Thompson had been noted also as having associations with Communist Party members.[75] As well, he was a member of the American Institute for Marxist Studies. Thompson alludes to dialectical nature of his activities by joining both the “extreme Right and the moderate Left,” but that his “dedication to the principles of practical National Socialism” was only strengthened.[76]

Viereck's memoir of life in prison, Men Into Beasts, the first original title of 1950s gay pulp fiction, an emerging genre in that decade.
Viereck’s memoir of life in prison, Men Into Beasts, the first original title of 1950s gay pulp fiction, an emerging genre in that decade.

In 1948, Thompson attended the founding meeting of George Wallace’s Progressive Party and resigned from the Marines to devote himself to working for Wallace.[77] He praised Senators Joseph McCarthy and Robert Taft to The New York Compass as two statesmen who had opposed the Nuremberg Trials. Taft was elder son of President William Howard Taft, and like his father, a member of Skull and Bones, and a direct descendant of its founder, Alphonso Taft.[78] Thompson formed the American Voters Union in 1952 for the purpose of campaigning for Taft’s presidential nomination by the Republican Party. The Union announced its fight for the “principles of Taft and MacArthur,” against the incipient Marxism of “New Deal” type programs infiltrating the Republican Party and backed by Dwight Eisenhower’s candidacy.[79]

Shortly before he was indicted in 1941 for a violation of the Foreign Agents Registration Act, Viereck entrusted his “little black book” to Thompson, which contained handwritten records of all the payoffs that Vierick had made to U.S. congressmen and senators right up to Pearl Harbor, and the services he got in return.[80] Thompson introduced Yockey to Viereck who shared his interest in sexual perversions.[81] FBI agents believed that Yockey was “living in Los Angeles as a pimp or a gigolo,” and that he was being “kept” by a wealthy woman.[82] Yockey maintained three fake passports and eight birth certificates, and among his numerous aliases was John Priapus, with which he wrote a series of overtly sado-masochistic short stories. Yockey also earned an income writing porn, including a hardcore S&M booklet called Arduous Figure Training at Bondhaven. Yockey was known to his friends for his interest in S&M, specifically whipping women, something he would have found in the writings of Evola.[83] He apparently carried on such an affair with a rich heiress named Hazel Guggenheim McKinley.[84]

Thompson was quoted as stating that he communicated with Oswald Mosley, and with Admiral Dönitz’ wife Inga, who was a recipient of committee aid.[85] Thompson also arranged for Viereck to go to Germany in 1955 to meet Dr. Werner Naumann, designated propaganda minister in Hitler’s will, and Inga Dönitz.[86] The fact of a Nazi expedition authorized by Herman Göring to the Antarctic during 1938-39, and Dönitz supposedly boasting that, “The German submarine fleet is proud of having built for the Führer, in another part of the world, a Shangri-La on land, an impregnable fortress,” contributed to persistent rumors of the Nazis based on the continent, including tales of flying saucers flying in and out of the Hollow Earth.[87]

Thompson served as a communications officer aboard the USS Mt. Olympus, the flagship of the Byrd Antarctic Expedition of December 1946 to April 1947. Byrd led 4,000 military troops from the US, Britain and Australia, known as Operation Highjump, to establish the Antarctic research base Little America IV. However, according to popular legend, the Byrd expedition was an “invasion” and encountered heavy resistance from Nazi “flying saucers” and had to call off the invasion. Thompson resigned from the US Navy in order to accept commission as a Second Lieutenant in the US Marine Corps. However, in February 1949, he faced a General Court Martial on charges of “scandalous conduct tending to destruction of good morals (sex deviate) and Maltreatment of Person Subject to His Orders.”[88]

The FBI was investigating Thompson for violation of the Foreign Agents Registration Act, beginning in 1956, in regard to his soliciting of letters on behalf of Dönitz and on the “war crimes trials” and the de-nazification trials. When Dönitz was released from Spandau Prison in 1956, Thompson organized an international campaign that succeeded in gaining him full pension rights. On Dönitz’s release from Spandau, Thompson and Viereck sent him a congratulatory telegram dated October 1, 1956, addressing him as “the legitimate president of Germany,” congratulating him on his “triumph” over the “criminal co-guilt of the USA and world jewry [sic]” and the “calculated plans of the destroyers of Western Culture….

Continued In Part 2…


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s