Source – veteranstodayarchives.com
…Continued From Part 1
Gladio activities in Greece have been described in detail by Daniele Ganser, who pioneered Gladio research, and by Richard Cottrell. Gladio operations subverted Greece as early as 1944 while Gladio had not been formally set up. The Nazis faced stiff resistance from the Greeks, the resistance being led by the Communists. EAM, the political wing of the Greek People’s Liberation Army, had a membership of approximately two million. The Greek population at that time was around seven million. Churchill planned to install a puppet king in power supported by a right wing government. Ruthless force was employed to achieve this end. The British joined hands with the Nazis in Greece to eliminate the Communist leaders. As it became clear that Britain was using a right-wing army to suppress those who had fought against the Nazis, a peaceful protest was planned in Athens on December 3, 1944. An initial group of between 200 to 600 people preceded the 60,000 people who were to follow them sometime later. However before the arrival of the main crowd the peaceful protesters were fired upon from various directions. The firing lasted almost an hour killing 25 and injuring almost 150 people. “Kill the bastards” was the rallying cry that launched the snipers on their firing spree. When the 60,000 arrived and saw the carnage, they exercised exceptional restraint and decided to stay peaceful. This was the first experience of Greece with the UK and right-wingers, including Nazi supporters, having joined hands to repress the popular will.
Not to be outdone, the Americans joined hands with the British and added their full weight in repressing the Greek leaders who had fought against the Nazis. It so happened that the left wing leadership, angered and frustrated by the British, took to hills and began an armed resistance. The British now requested the Americans to take over and despite the fact that British had indulged in the most heinous violations of human rights, the Americans brought in their armed forces in such large numbers that the resistance forces were outnumbered. In addition they faced a far better equipped adversary, armed with superior weaponry. In Operation Torch the U.S. forces employed Napalm bombing to torch Greek partisans. This is incredible yet the Americans were doing it as far back as the latter half of the 1940s. The U.S. leadership was guilty of serious war crimes. Not unexpectedly the Communists were defeated by the end of 1948 and Greece, with all its bitterness, was handed over to a right-wing government, directed by its master, the U.S. The British had set up the Raiding Force as far back as 1944. Ganser has remarked  that the Raiding Force (acronym LOK), created by the British in 1944, “arguably remains the oldest of the secret stay-behind armies active in Europe during the Cold War.” The Greek Gladio operation was named Operation Sheepskin. Subsequently the CIA and NATO took over, trained and employed the Hellenic Raiding Force. In 1955 a secret formal agreement was signed by General Trascott who represented the CIA the Chief of Staff of the Greek military Konstantin Dovas and the Greek Prime Minister Papagos. The same was secretly renewed in 1960.
It was in 1964 that the American President Lyndon B. Johnson told the Greek ambassador in the U.S. that the ongoing civil war in Cyprus necessitated a partition of Cyprus. When the Greek ambassador expressed disagreement Johnson erupted :
“Then listen to me Mr. Ambassador. Fuck your parliament and your constitution. America is an elephant. Cyprus is a flea. Greece is a flea. If those two fleas continue itching the elephant, they may just get whacked by the elephant’s trunk, whacked good. We pay a lot of good dollars to the Greeks Mr. Ambassador. If your Prime Minister gives me talk about democracy, parliament and constitution, he, his parliament and his constitution may not last very long. . . . Don’t forget to tell old Papa – what’s his name – what I told you. Mind you tell him, you hear. ”
Having instructed the Greek Ambassador to communicate the threat to the Prime Minister George Papandreou, Johnson resorted to a serious threat against the ambassador when he communicated what Johnson had said to him. The cable from the ambassador to the Prime Minister had been intercepted by the NSA. So Johnson rang up the ambassador as soon as he heard of it : “Are you trying to get yourself into my bad books Mr. Ambassador? That was a private conversation me and you had. You had no call putting in all them words I used on you. Watch your step.” And then he disconnected. This is the level to which the U.S. Presidency had sunk – Johnson spoke like a Mafia thug. The world understands that there were many others like Johnson in his footsteps and around the Oval Office. Men like Dick Cheney, Rumsfeld, Bush et al, etc. are all cut out of the same stone. For Johnson the fact that Greece was, along with Christianity, the source of Western thought had no value, just as the remains of important ancient buildings in Babylon had no value for Bush et al.
Andreas Papandreou, the son of the Prime Minister had fled to the U.S. in 1930s where he went into the academic profession becoming the head of the economics department at the University of California, Berkeley. He served in the U.S. Navy during WWII and became a member of the CIA Mediterranean policy group. However he soon understood what the CIA was up to in his country. He therefore broke his ties with the CIA, gave up his U.S. nationality and returned to Greece to become a member of the cabinet in 1964. He then discovered that the Greek secret military service KYP bugged ministerial conversations as a matter of routine. Further the KYP handed over records of these conversations to the CIA. He fired a couple of KYP officers and ordered the new appointee to stop this practice. The man came back to tell him that he could not do so because all equipment was American and operated either by Americans or Greeks under American control!
What was Johnson’s problem? It was simple – the Greeks had a neutral stance in the Cold War. Johnson proved true to his word. A coup was staged to oust an elected government whose civilian head was neutral in the U.S. – Soviet Union conflict. Another election was due and it was quite clear that the Papandreou’s party would return with a thumping majority. How could the agencies of the United States of America allow that? The secret Gladio army, the Hellenic Raiding Force, started the coup on the night between April 20/21, 1967, hand in hand with the army. The Hellenic Raiding Force took over the Defense Ministry at midnight. A CIA plan by the name Prometheus, meant to go into effect in case of a Soviet invasion, was instead put into action to oust an elected government. The people in Athens were fast asleep only to find out in the morning that their phone lines were not working. They then learned of a military coup and were told that the coup had been enacted to “save democracy.” “Within twenty minutes every politician, every man and anarchist who was listed” was rounded up according to the boast of Col. Yannis Ladas, Director of the Greek Military Police. The military knocked at the door of the 78 year old Prime Minister and arrested him. His son Andreas could have escaped but they got hold of his 14 year old son and a soldier put a gun to the head of the boy, forcing Andreas to give up. Ganser writes :
“The Greek junta consolidated its power through a regime of imprisonment and torture, the like of which had not been seen in Western Europe since the end of the Second World War. Most of those who had been arrested in the first hours after the coup were later moved to police and army cells. Communists, Socialists, artists, academics, politically active women, priests, including their friends and families, were tortured. Their toe and fingernails were torn out. Their feet were beaten with sticks, until the skin came off and the bones were broken. Sharp objects were shoved into vaginas. Filthy rags, often soaked in urine, and sometimes excrement, were pushed down their throats to throttle them, tubes were inserted into their anus and water driven in at very high pressure, and electro shocks were applied to their head.”
This coup and its doings were carried out through the secret Gladio army, the Hellenic Raiding Force, working in collusion with the army, under the able guidance of the CIA. How would the CIA et al feel if they were to taste a bit of their own medicine? How many Americans know of these things? With the kind of mind set that is developed in U.S. academic institutions (through teaching of sanitized history, etc.) as well as through the media, there will be many Americans who will simply refuse to believe these things. But others will, if it is brought to their attention.
Andreas Papandreou was kept in confinement for seven months and then released. He took to winning his bread by teaching in Canada and Sweden. He kept on fighting for restoration of democracy from abroad. When the military junta, in accordance with the US script, ousted the left-leaning Bishop Makarios, and attempted to conquer Cyprus, Turkey responded and took control of a part of the island of Cyprus. Cyprus was thus divided. This adventure of the Greek junta led to the partition of Cyprus and precipitated its downfall. The junta was arrested and its main leader sentenced to death, the sentence being commuted to life imprisonment later on. Andrea Papandreou returned to eventually become Prime Minister. Then he revealed in October 1990 that it was in 1984 that he had learned of the Greek Gladio. The then Defense Minister was forced to acknowledge the existence of the Operation Sheepskin, which he claimed, had been dismantled in 1988. Nonetheless the Greek governments have been reluctant to expose the involvement of the secret army in terrorism.
Gladio subversion continued in Greece and many innocent people were killed. Cottrell has given a detailed description of many acts of terrorism in Greece that seemed to continue into the present century as well. Many of the murders were attributed to an organization November 17. However there were many who doubted the official narrative. Cottrell describes  the murder of the eminent Georgios Athansiadis, the “untiring scourge all political chicanery and outspoken editor of the Vradini – a newspaper with a long and unfettered reputation for acerbic comment on public matters . . .” In March 1983, while Athansiadis was sitting in his office a young man outside sent a slip mentioning that he wanted to see him and might have information of interest. Athansiadis called him into his office, the boy, according to the only eyewitness who was himself injured, whispered something in the editor’s ear. Athansiadis was disturbed by whatever was muttered in his ear and exclaimed “This cannot be”. And then bullet shots were heard – he was hit in the head and the shoulder. The killer simply walked away with ease and confidence and melted into the crowds outside going about their daily business. Cottrell points out that the “killer appeared arrogant in the knowledge that he was immune from detection.” The Athens police claimed to have found leaflets whereby the responsibility of the murder was calimed by a group calling itself the Anti-Military Struggle. Cottrell states that the anarchists were furious and denounced the police claim or ‘evidence’ as “blatant official forgeries.” Nothing came out of the investigations – they just went quiet and it appears everything has been forgotten.
In 1984 Andreas Papandreou was in power and his Justice Minister wanted to investigate the murder, in 1971, of a pretty British MI6 agent named Ann Chapman. Surprisingly, Andreas Papandreou was opposed to digging out the case. In defiance of his wishes the Justice Minister, a well known poet, Georgios Mangakis, handed over the files to a retired public prosecutor Georgios Thefanopoulos. But this was not to be – Thefanopoulus was murdered in broad daylight in his office. Apparently a young man on a motorcycle killed him by firing at point blank range through the window of Thefanopoulus’ car. Not only did police not find anything, the Justice Minister was also sacked. So had Andreas Papandreou succumbed to the powers that be or was he himself running his own secret operators? Cottrell writes :
“In Athens the cynical view quickly developed – based on the gloomy experience of the past – the agents of the state were loose on the streets with a license to kill, concealing their activities beneath the cloak of an imaginary anarchist threat to the nation. It was certainly curious how the frequency of attacks and threats to prominent citizens accelerated as the general elections approached together with solemn warnings from the governing party over the dangers by ‘anarchists and dissidents’ working against democracy.
The similarity in favored styles of execution and choice of victims was not lost upon those who were studying the outbreak of gun law in Athens. Neither was the strange inability of the police to get to grips with this supposed threat to democratic stability.”
A peaceful and democratic Greece underwent great pain and suffering and disturbance after World War II primarily because of the desire of the American and British agencies to control it for their own ends. Greece remains unsettled and the suffering in various garbs continues.
Captain Guerin-Serac originally worked for French military intelligence and carried out torture and killings in Algeria. When De Gaulle disbanded OAS (Organisation de l’Armee Secrete) and Algeria became independent in 1962, intelligence operatives like Guerin-Serac were in great danger and fled to other countries where they, backed by the CIA, offered their expertise in subversion and suppression to dictators. Guerin-Serac et al moved to Portugal. As agents of the Portuguese dictator Salazar the field of operation of these gladiators extended to Portuguese colonies, particularly in Africa. They were also involved in sabotage in Europe. Guerin-Serac set up an organization named Aginter Press in Portugal. The Italian judge Salvini, who investigated Galdio in Italy, described Aginter Press as a CIA front organization. It was revealed that Aginter Press agents had visited Rome between 1968 and 1969 and taught members of the right wing group Avanguardia Nazionale how to use explosives. Contacts between members of Ordo Nuovo and Aginter Press were also confirmed. A Portuguese organization had become involved in subversion, not just in Portuguese colonies, but in Western European countries as well. They could only do so because they were a CIA front and it were CIA et al that were interested in subversion on such a wide canvass. As Daniele Ganser, who wrote the first ever book on Gladio, states :
“The CIA and Salazar’s military secret service PIDE provided the finances for the terrorism of Captain Guerin-Serac. An Aginter Press document entitled ‘Our Political Activity’ and dated November 1969, was found in late 1974. It describes how a country can be targeted with secret warfare: ‘Our belief is that the first phase of political activity ought to be to create the conditions favoring the installation of chaos in all of the regime’s structures.’ As the most essential component of the strategy of violence inflicted had to be blamed on the Communists and traces had to be planted accordingly. ‘In our view the first move we should make is to destroy the structure of the democratic state under the cover of Communist and pro-Chinese activities. . . . Moreover, we have people who have infiltrated these groups and obviously we will have to tailor our actions to the ethos of the milieu – propaganda and action of a sort which will seem to have emanated from our Communist adversaries.’ Such false flag operations, the secret soldiers concluded, ‘will create a feeling of hostility towards those who threaten the peace of each and every nation’, i.e. the Communists.”
Aginter Press carried out assassinations in Portugal as well as in Africa in Portuguese colonies in an attempt to destroy liberation movements. Ganser points out that Portuguese opposition leader Humberto Delgado was assassinated by the Aginter Press assassins. They also assassinated Eduardo Mondlane in 1969, who headed a movement for the freedom of Mozambique. One of the most prominent revolutionary leaders Amilear Cabral was also killed by Aginter Press. Despite these brutalities all Portuguese colonies became independent.
As a CIA front Aginter Press made it their task to indulge in murderous activities wherever required in the entire world. Ganser writes :
“Therefore Aginter operatives, including American Jay Sablonsky, together with the CIA and US Green Berets Special Forces participated in the notorious Gautemalan counter-terror of 1968-1971, in which some 50,000 people, mostly civilian, were estimated to have been killed. Further Aginter operatives were present in Chile in 1973 and were involved when CIA ousted Socialist President Salvador Allende and replaced him with right wing dictator Augusto Pinochet. From its safe haven in Portugal’s right-wing dictatorship Aginter was able to dispatch its secret soldiers in numerous territories across the globe.”
When left wing officers of the Portuguese army ended the dictatorship in Portugal in 1974 (the Catholic politician Antonio de Oliviera Salazar, who promoted highly repressive policies, was the Prime Minister from 1936-1968!), Aginter Press operatives, led by Captain Guerin-Serac, fled the country and sought refuge in Madrid, where General Franco was still in power. The Aginter Press was apparently warned by insiders in Portugal that their offices will be raided and they left their office taking most of the documents with them. Nonetheless, in their hurry, they still left behind many incriminating documents proving that the Aginter Press was indeed a CIA front engaged in terrorism.
From Spain Aginter Press carried out sabotage in Europe. It could do so because it was a CIA front. It planted bombs in Algerian embassies in four different countries in 1975 – France, Italy, the UK and Germany. The bomb in front of the Algerian embassy in Frankfurt did not explode and was immediately subjected to minute analysis by the German authorities. And what did they find? They found the C4 explosive that was in the exclusive use of the US forces. The American hand was therefore undoubtedly present in these bombing and as C4 could not be available to terrorists only and only from the US military and / or secret US agencies. These bombings were carried out to discredit an Algerian opposition group. In each of the explosions the signal SOA, which meant “Algerian Opposition”, was used. When General Franco died in November 1975, Aginter Press again became “homeless” but within no time they fled to South America finding a safe haven under the wing of General Pinochet of Chile.
VIOLENCE IN TURKEY
According to Daniele Ganser the bloodiest Gladio operations took place in Turkey where CIA-trained men resorted to extreme violence. We have already described the ouster and murder of the elected and popular Prime Minister Adnan Menderes on American initiative. But violence in Turkey took many forms and continued the longest of all pre 9/11 Gladio sponsored violence anywhere. Turkey’s strategic location, its martial traditions, its aspiration to become powerful again, particularly under a pan-Turkic ideology which embraced many regions lying in the then Soviet Union and China, its intense nationalism and anti-Communism, made it an ideal tool for the CIA et al for use or abuse against left-wingers and Communists. The penetration of American civil and military agencies in the military and intelligence set up of Turkey was therefore very deep and very dangerous.
The key person in Turkey in setting up a Gladio type secret army was Colonel Alparsalan Turkes who was a contact person of the Nazis in Turkey during World War II. Col. Turkes was a believer in the racial superiority of the Turks and was known to quote Hitler in his speeches. He established contact with the CIA, and on CIA instruction, began setting up the secret stay-behind army around 1948. When Turkey joined NATO in 1952, Col. Turkes had already set up the Turkish Galdio. The secret organization that controlled the Turkish Gladio was head-quarterd in the CIA office in Ankara. The CIA office in Ankara carried the name American Aid Delegation – JUSMATT whereas the organization that controlled the Turkish Gladio was given the name Tactical Mobilization Group (Seferberlik Taktik Kurulu, STK). The STK was restructured in 1965 and renamed Special Warfare Department (Ozal Harp Dairesi OHD). When Gladio was exposed in 1990 OHD was renamed as Special Forces Command (Ozel Kuvevetler Komutanligi, OKK).
The Turkish Gladio was named Counter-Guerilla and was controlled by the OHD. Counter Guerilla had five units; a special section on Kurds, another on Cyprus, a group that specialized in interrogation techniques, an overall Coordination Group and an Administrative Section. The OHD (Special Warfare Department) was funded and trained entirely by the CIA. Members of this secret army also served the MIT (Milli Isthbaarat Testilati), the Turkish military secret service. After Adnan Menderes had been hanged and civilian government restored, Col. Turkes set up his National Action Party and the Grey Wolves (reminiscent of Gen. Gehlens werewolves) with CIA funds. The Grey Wolves were supposed to be the youth wing of the party formed by Col. Turkes. As Ganser states :
“The Grey Wolves, far from being a youth organization, were a brutal network of trained and armed men ready to use violence to further the cause of Pan-Turkism. ‘The creed of the Grey Wolves’ an article in Bozkurt, the official magazine of the organization, specified the ideology and the strategy of the movement in the following way: ‘Who are we? We are the members of the Grey Wolves (Bozkurtcu). What is our ideology? The Turkism of the Grey Wolf (Bozkurt). What is the creed of the Bozkurtcu? They believe, that the Turkish race and the Turkish nation are superior. What is the source of this superiority? The Turkish blood.’”
But the fact that they were funded by the CIA reduces them to a mere tool, but a very violent and dangerous tool. Quoting a Turkish writer Celik, Ganser states :
“ ‘The CIA has a group of at least 20 persons which work together with MIT and within the MIT are the highest organ’, Savasman explained. ‘They assure both the exchange of intelligence as well as cooperation in joint operations both within and outside Turkey.’ The cooperation, as he insisted, had not begun under his term in office: ‘Our secret service has been working together with the CIA ever since the 1950s. . . all technical equipment that we use has been made available by the CIA. A large part of our personnel has been trained by CIA abroad. The MIT headquarters were built by the CIA.’ Tellingly the CIA had also provided the Turks with the torture equipment: ‘The complete equipment of the interrogation chambers from the simplest to the most complex devices stems from the CIA. This I know because I directly worked with it.’ The MIT was entirely dependent on the CIA, above all because the CIA paid the bill as Savasman stressed: ‘The cost of operations within and outside Turkey are charged to the CIA budget.’”
With the above picture, nothing that the Counter-Guerilla and the MIT did was without CIA involvement. The CIA essentially controlled these organizations. The extent of CIA control and the fact that entire funding, even for the military secret service, the MIT, came from the CIA is something of which Turkey, with its proud traditions, cannot be proud. Sabahattin Savasam was the Vice Director of MIT. During his trial he confirmed that Hiram Abas, the most brutal and the most CIA-loved member of MIT , “took part in joint operations with the CIA in Lebanon, winning for himself a considerable salary and financial rewards, targeting left-wing youths in the Palestinian camps and receiving bounty for the results he achieved in actions.” The brutal Hiram Abas was eventually killed by left-wingers in retaliation for his brutality, the former CIA chief in Turkey Duane Clarridge came to Turkey to visit the grave of his ‘brother’ as he called Abas. Incidentally the name Hiram Abas is very close to the name Hiram Abif, “the principal character in the second section of the Master’s Degree in all rites and in all countries” in Freemasonry .
In order to generate tension, operators of the secret stay behind army in Turkey, the Counter-Guerilla, threw a bomb in a house in Greece which was revered by the Turks since it was the Mutafa Kemal Museum. Nobody in Turkey thought for one moment that it may have been an act meant to incite Turks against the Greeks. The Counter-Guerilla then “reacted” very violently and attacked Greek homes and businesses in Turkey, in Izmir and in Istanbul. The toll was horrific: 16 Greeks were killed, 32 were wounded and over 200 Greek women were raped. And the CIA leadership sat back enjoying the carnage its agents had wrought.
On May 1, 1977 the May Day massacre took place in Taksim Square in Turkey. Half a million men and women had gathered in Taksim Square that day. Near sunset snipers fired at the crowd generating complete chaos. The firing continued for 20 minutes leaving 38 dead and hundreds injured. The snipers fired from atop Hotel International. The said hotel was owned by the ITT, the telecom company with a chequered record. Three days before the incident all guests were ejected and no new ones were booked. A group of foreigners came to occupy the hotel. After the incident the foreigners left, the ownership of the hotel changed as did its name – it became Hotel Marmara. Hiram Abas was personally present on the scene when the May Day massacre took place. The CIA chief Duan Claridge would refer to Hiram Abas as “closer than my brother.” With the CIA control of Counter Guerilla and MIT, its involvement in Taksim Square massacre is self-evident.
Throughout the 1970s violence was carried out by Counter-Guerilla. Bulent Ecevit, who was to be four-time Prime Minister of Turkey, became aware of the secret Counter Guerilla and suspected it in the ongoing violence in Turkey. Ankara’s Deputy State Attorney Dogan Oez began looking at the connection between the fascist MHP party of Col. Turkes, the Counter-Guerilla and the Grey Wolves. He was able to find out their interconnection. He found that the secret state, the secret civil and military network was behind all violence that was taking place in Turkey and that the Counter Guerilla was controlled by the Special Warfare Department (OHD), that MIT was directly involved in the massacres and that MHP members and cadres were guiding MIT et al in this violence. He was therefore murdered on March 24, 1978. His murderer Cifcti admitted to having murdered him but told the judges that they could not touch him. Every time the civil court punished him it was overruled by the military courts. In the end Ciftci was set free. The civilian judges noted that they were compelled to release the criminal because they could not appeal against the decision of the highest military court.
Violence in Turkey was carried out by Counter-Guerilla and MIT operatives to pave the way for a military coup when needed. The violence in Turkey led to the second coup in 1971. Once civilian rule was restored violence again burst through. One right winger who was tried in court stated that the terrorism in the 1970s was carried out to bring the military in power. He stated: “The massacres were a provocation by the MIT. With provocations by the MIT and the CIA the ground was prepared for the September 12 coup.” As soon as General Kenan Everin assumed power (in 1980) all violence suddenly disappeared confirming what the person on trial had said. As Ganser has written :
“U.S. president Carter was at the opera when the coup in Turkey took place. When he heard about it he called Paul Henze, former Chief of the CIA station in Turkey who had left Ankara shortly before the coup to become a security adviser to President Carter in Washington on the Turkey desk of the CIA. On the phone Carter told Henze what the latter already knew: ‘Your people have just made a coup!’ The President was right. Paul Henze, the day after the coup, had triumphantly declared to his CIA colleagues in Washington: ‘Our boys have done it!’ Henze, according to Counter-Guerrila expert Celik, ‘was the chief architect of the September 12, 1980 coup.’ Years later Carter commented that ‘before the September 12 movement Turkey was in a critical situation in regard to its defenses. After the intervention in Afghanistan and the overthrow of the Iranian monarchy, the movement for the stabilization of Turkey came as a relief to us.’”
When many of the Grey Wolves, who had been subsequently arrested and put in jails, were approached by the MIT which promised to secure their release, provided they agreed to fight against Kurds i.e. to killing Kurds, some assented. They were released and thus began the new phase of massive violence in Turkey. In the fight against the Kurdish KPP more than 25000 people were killed on both sides and millions of Kurds were displaced. Turks were provided by modern military equipment in the course of this internal war. As Ganser remarks: “Until today, the involvement of NATO’s stay-behind armies in the massacres against the Kurds, ranges among the greatest secrets in Turkey and Washington.” Washington controlled both, the Turkish and Greek military as well their intelligence services and used them to subvert both countries and eliminate genuinely representative governments. The bloody and remorseless betrayal of Kurds by every party, particularly by the British and subsequently by the Americans, throughout the twentieth century right up to today, requires a detailed and separate treatment.
Journalists and editors, or anyone else, who sought to expose Turkish Gladio operations, the involvement of the secret stay behind army in drug trafficking and assassinations, and their deep links with the CIA, were themselves targeted. This was the same pattern that is found in Italy where journalists seeking to expose Gladio were targeted. One person who spoke out and suffered greatly was General Talat Turhan. Turhan had taken part in the 1960 coup against Adnan Menderes but appears to have understood what was really going on. He was dismissed from the army in 1964 after he had become a general. His dismissal, in all probability, must be due to his views on the secret state, the Turkish Gladio. He had, at some point in the 1970s, declared that Counter-Guerilla was “a secret unit of the NATO countries,” a statement to which few had then paid heed. He was picked up after the 1971 coup and tortured. In the year 1997, he stated :
“Then they told me that I was now ‘in the hands of a Counter-Guerrilla unit operating under the command of the Army outside the constitution and the laws.’ They told me that they ‘considered me as their prisoner of war and that I was sentenced to death.’ . . . In this villa I was tied up arms and feet chained to a bed for a month and tortured in a way a human being has difficulty to imagine. It was under these circumstances that I was first made familiar with the name Counter-Guerillas. . . The torturers, which called themselves Counter-Guerilla were largely made up of men of the Turkish secret service MIT and of Grey Wolves. Although these facts have been on the agenda of the parliament they have not been clarified to this day.”
On the face of it the torture of a fellow senior officer by the military intelligence seems to be mean and unlike the normal code of honor followed by the military. But the roots of this kind of mean behavior emanate from those who trained and controlled them – the CIA et al. The officers of Counter-Guerilla were trained at the notorious School of Americas (SOA) at Fort Benning in Georgia, U.S.A. SOA has churned out tens of thousands of torturers and spread them all over the globe. Perhaps the souls of those innocent men and women, who died at the hands of their SOA-trained torturers, the world over, might come back to haunt Fort Benning one day! The officers were trained to “pick [people] up, throw them on the back of a bus, and shoot them on the back of their head.” They were also taught how to “kill, stab, or strangle somebody silently.” In view of its profound and lasting contributions to the cause of “Democracy” and “Humanity”, SOA should be renamed. School of Brutality or School of Bestiality would be an appropriate name.
CIA, Counter-Guerilla, Grey Wolves, and the Assassination Attempt on Pope Paul II
There was a deep connection between the CIA et al controlled Grey Wolves and members of Counter-Guerilla with the assassination attempt on Pope on May 13, 1981. The Afghan war was going on at that time. The man who investigated this link most deeply was the incredibly brave Turkish investigative reporter Ugur Mumcu, who, according to Cottrell, was “the man who knew too much.” He was killed in a car bomb explosion on January 24, 1993. But he had, before he died, exposed the deep links between the CIA, MIT, Grey Wolves, drug and arms trafficking, and their links to the attempt to assassinate Pope John Paul II, the first ever non Italian Pope since the mid-fourteenth century. As Cottrell wrote :
“Western citizens were socked with drugs by their own authorities, in collusion with organized crime. A huge international arms-for-narcotics go-round delivered top-of-the range military hardware in the Middle-East – siphoned from NATO stockpiles all over Europe – in exchange for heroin, which then flooded western markets.”
At both ends the result was destruction and loss of human life – through drugs in the West and through armed violence in the Middle East. Ugur Mumcu found out that Mehmet Ali Agca, the would assassin of the Pope, worked for Bekir Celenk who was engaged in arms smuggling. Williams states :
“He discovered that Celenk was engaged in the smuggling of arms and drugs through his fleet of cargo ships, which sailed under a Panamanian flag. Interviewing workers and crew members of the Vasoula, he obtained testimony that he carried 495 rocket launchers and 10,000 missiles from the Bulgarian port of Burgos to Istanbul, where it was received by leading figures from the Turkish underworld, including Abuzer Ugurlu. Mumcu working with the Turkish police, established Agca’s ties with the Grey Wolves and right-wing terrorists. He realized that the would be assassin had performed executions, including the murder of Ipekci, with Abdullah Catli and Oral Celik. What’s more he was able to identify Celik as the gunman who was running from St. Peter’s Square with pistol in hand.”
Cottrell quotes Mumcu :
“And the interesting thing is that the weapons smuggled in Bulgaria are weapons produced in NATO countries. Don’t the Bulgarian police know or see how all these arms from NATO nations clandestinely enter a Warsaw pact member nation? They know – and see.”
All these connections were to surface in different ways when those who clandestinely control U.S. clandestine policy decided to assassinate the Pope. Paul L. Williams has stated that on September 1, 1976, Kissinger established the Safari Club. The heads of intelligence agencies of U.S., France, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Morocco. Many CIA agents were also members of the Safari Club. William states :
“The primary function of the Club was the orchestration of terrorist and proto-terrorists by proxy groups throughout the world – from Renamo in Mozambique to Unita in Angola, and from Contras in Nicaragua to the mujahideen in Afghanistan. “
Professor Peter Dale Scott has put it in the following words :
“As former Saudi intelligence chief Prince Turki bin Faisal once told Georgetown University alumni, ‘In 1976, after the Watergate matters took place here, your intelligence community was literally tied up by Congress. It could not do anything. It could not send spies, it could not write reports, and it could not pay money. In order to compensate for that, a group of countries got together in the hope of fighting Communism and established what was called the Safari Club. The Safari Club included France, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Morocco, and Iran.’ Prince Turki’s candid remarks– ‘your intelligence community was literally tied up by Congress. …. In order to compensate for that, a group of countries got together … and established what was called the Safari Club.’ – made it clear that the Safari Club, operating at the level of the deep state, was expressly created to overcome restraints established by political decisions of the public state in Washington (decisions not only of Congress but also of President Carter).”
Pope Paul II belonged to Poland and had extensive contacts with the Polish Solidarity Movement, which was fighting against Communism politically. At the same time the Pope had engaged in back door diplomacy with Soviets in order to ease out the plight of tens of millions of Christians living behind what was then called the Iron Curtain. Simultaneously the Pope’s Vatican Bank received huge sums of money from the Americans, to be funneled to the Polish Solidarity movement in order to move Poland out of the Soviet orbit. Interestingly the Vatican Bank received $200 million for the purpose but, in reality, not more than $200,000 per annum were given to Solidarity! All these things were in the knowledge of the American intelligence. The attempt of the Pope to lift the Iron Curtain, to bail out, as it were, the Russians, did not go well with those who controlled American foreign policy. Cottrell writes :
“From 1979, a member of the Saudi inner court , Prince Turki al-Faisal, shared the helm. The Safari Club was crowded with ex-CIA people who for one reason or the other were fired or left for more exciting pastures. These included the legendary Theodore “the blond ghost” Shackley, who was present in Rome the day the Pope was shot. The only aim of the Safari Club was to discredit communism, by any means. Its functionaries were also accustomed to performing ‘contact jobs’ on behalf of the ‘real’ CIA. Its shadow in the underworld was now about to take its most spectacular operation: the assassination of Pope John Paul II.”
A crowd of approximately 20,000 pilgrims was present when the attempt to kill the Pope was made on May 13, 1982 in St. Peter’s Square, Rome. Cottrell writes :
“Photographs depict Agca holding a pistol with both hands, scarcely a meter or so from the Pope, who is standing and waving. He seemed to be aiming carefully, allowing for the crush around him, holding the pistol on the eye-line profile. Witnesses described the Turk as seemingly drugged and oddly unanimated. None apparently saw him, whip out the concealed weapon and take aim which is strange considering the closely packed crowd.”
When shots were fired the Pope received three bullets and bled so profusely that he survived by a hairline as it were. Several pilgrims were also injured. How many bullet shells were recovered from the scene is, rather surprisingly, not known. There was a diversionary explosion and one photograph by an onlooker showed another gunman running away with a pistol. Ugur Mumcu was to identify this man as Abdullah Catli. Catli, who was assassinated through a hideous car accident a decade later, was also the number two in the hierarchy of the CIA sponsored Grey Wolves. The diversionary explosion reported by those present, and the photograph showing another man with a gun, establish that Agca did not act alone. But a very quick cover up was put into effect as discussed below.
That there was a cover up is undeniable. According to Cottrell a variety of casings were found in the vicinity of the location that led magistrate Luciano Infelisi, known for his independence, to state, “there are documental proofs that Mehmet Ali Agca did not act alone.” He was taken off the case in no time! Why? The arrest warrant issued by Achille Galucci, the prosecutor general stated that the Pope was attacked by Agca “in collaboration with persons whose identity remains unknown.” Further the use of the light but not very accurate Belgian made Browning double action revolver forced Francesco Bruno, the arms specialist of the Italian secret police, who happened to be on duty that day, to say: “no serious assassin would have used the Browning pistol to mortally wound his victim.” He also stated that Agca did not target the thorax and also did not empty his magazine. Bruno concluded that “Agca was the fall-guy indoctrinated to believe he was supposed to fire warning shots, or at most create a diversion.” His conclusions were brushed aside . Why?Three experts gave an opinion that Agca did not act alone. Yet they were completely ignored and one was taken off the case. Does one smell a cover up? Certainly.
What followed was most astonishing. The trial was over in a mere three days! Williams writes about the role of SISMI (Italian Military Information and Security Service) chief General Giuseppe Santovito in the cover up. Santovito was a member of the secret society P2 that had been involved in false flag sabotage activities in Italy. He therefore knew more about the Gladio activities than any one else and was also in danger of being exposed. Williams states :
“Santovito soon emerged as the lead character in the assassination plot. He would handle all aspects of the investigation. He would provide cover for the co-conspirators. He would grant shelter to the assassins. As the head of the military intelligence and the commander of the Italian Gladio units, he was uniquely qualified for the role. By the time of his meeting with Shackley, the general was closely working with Stibam, ensuring safety for the massive arms for drugs operation that had been set up by the Sicilian Mafia, the Turkish babas, and the CIA.”
During the trial Mehmet Ali Agca first refused to accept the jurisdiction of the Italian court as the incident had taken place in Vatican city – Vatican was a sovereign state in its own right. When his demand for shifting the case to another venue was turned down he simply said the case was over – “I shall not answer any questions, I do not acknowledge this court. The trial has ended.” Apparently a nun testified that at the trial saying that Agca had shot the Pope and that she believed he had acted alone. There was no need to say that she believed he had acted alone but she did, probably on instruction, to keep the investigation away from a conspiracy. However the photograph taken by an American tourist, which clearly showed a man running away with a gun in his hand, undermined her claim and the court, in view of the photograph, and perhaps for other reasons, was compelled to state that “there existed no valid elements permitting to confirm or exclude” the possibility of another gun man. The court should have probed the matter more deeply. Further the presence in St. Peter’s Square at that time, of the firing Ted Shackley and Tom Clines, notorious ex CIA employees, should also have been probed by the court and the investigators. This was a highly significant presence. Where there were Shackley and Clines there was bound to be murder and intrigue. Why were these two ex CIA employees there and what were they up to? They were certainly not there to pay homage to the Pope. In fact it may be highly illuminating to see what their colleague in crime and conspiracy for decades, James Jesus Angleton, had to say on his death bed about what all of them did. On his death bed James Jesus Angleton, the Jesuit head of Counter Intelligence in the CIA, gave an interview to Joseph Trento. This was two years before his death – Angleton died in 1987. Trento writes :
“I asked the dying man how it all went so wrong.
With no emotion in his voice, his hands trembling, Angleton replied: ‘Fundamentally the founding fathers of the U.S. intelligence were liars. The better you lied, the more you betrayed, the more likely you would be promoted. These people attracted and promoted each other. Outside of their duplicity, the only thing they had in common was a desire for absolute power. I did things that, in looking back on my life, I regret. But I was part of it and loved being in it . . . Allen Dulles, Richard Helms, Carmel Offie, and Frank Wisner were the grand masters. If you were in a room with them you were in a room full of people that you had to believe would deservedly end up in hell.’ Angleton slowly sipped his tea and then said, ‘I guess I will see them there soon.’”
Ted Shackley and Tom Clines perfectly fit the category that has been mentioned by Angleton. Clines was a suspect in the murder of Salvador Allende, the Chilean president. Both Shackley and Clines were running death squads in South America. Both had immense blood on their hands. So their presence at the scene on the day of the attempted assassination was most meaningful.
Although Agca had been sentenced to life imprisonment with one year in solitary confinement, he received very important visitors during this “solitary confinement.” It appears that the condition of solitary confinement was imposed in order that Agca may receive these highly important visitors and everyone else may be denied permission to meet him! Such visitors were bound to draw the attention of the prison inmates. Among those who visited him were General Giuseppe Santovito, Director General of SISMI (Italian Military Information and Security Service), former OSS agent and founder of the Pro Deo intelligence agency in Rome Fr. Felix Morlion, second in command at SISMI and simultaneously a CIA agent Francesco Pazienza, agents from the CIA, etc. What was so important that the Head of SISMI had to visit Agca personally? He could have sent a reliable officer from SISMI. The only reason that he visited Agca personally must be to ensure that his own secret involvement in the assassination was not blown and possibly to assess how firmly Agca was imbibing the new spin that he was being taught by Francesco Pazienza. The spin was to come out after about six months of confinement when his handlers were certain that Agca had thoroughly memorized what they had taught him. Pazienza apparently visited Agca very frequently and spent several months tutoring him about the involvement of Bulgarians in the assassination attempt. Agca was made to memorize every detail of the facial features of the Bulgarians whose names he would later take. He also learned about their habits and absorbed other information about them.
After having taught Agca the details about those whom he was directed to “reveal” as his Bulgarian “collaborators”, thus pointing a finger towards Soviet involvement in the assassination attempt, Agca began telling his prosecutors of the involvement of an accountant and military attaché in the Bulgarian embassy in Rome. This was in fall 1981. He also said that the assassination plans were drawn in the Rome apartment of a Bulgarian named Antonov, who was subsequently picked up, tortured and given psychotropic drugs. He never admitted to the plot and was released after three years in a condition in which he could not carry on a conversation. He was found dead in a desolate apartment in Sofia in 2007.
“Writers” like Michael Ledeen, Paul Henze and Claire Stirling began writing articles and books on the papal assassination attempt implicating the Bulgarians and the Soviet Union. According to Paul L. Williams, all these writers were on the payroll of the CIA! These spin-articles appeared in national periodicals as well in Readers Digest. This is how consent engineering works and the nations are misled into believing falsehoods. This also illustrates how book writing is used by the CIA in constructing falsified history. Such books are given great prominence by the mainstream media (another propaganda organ of the agencies and the Elite), are published by large publishers, and getting raving reviews. Importantly Paul Henze had told Ugur Mumcu that if he did not desist from pursuing his leads he may find “a nice surprise in store.” An overall view leaves no doubt that the CIA was behind the assassination attempt and, like all Gladio operations, an assassination was to be carried out by Gladio operators and blamed on the communists, in this case the Soviet Union.
Paul L. Williams writes :
“But the story was unraveling almost as soon as it was spun. Agca had been able to describe every mole and blemish on the Bulgarians he wished to implicate in the crime but remained unable to estimate their height! This proved telling since the two co-conspirators who worked in the Bulgarian Embassy in Rome resembled Mutt and Jeff from the comic strip. Their disparity in stature was almost comic. Another problem came from Agca’s description of Antonov’s apartment. The distinctive features he described including an ornate room divider between the living and dining rooms was not found in the Bulgarian’s living quarters. They were unique to the flat one floor below, which was occupied by Fr. Morlion. Agca also mentioned meeting Antonov’s wife and children during the planning sessions in April. But the Bulgarian’s family was not in Rome at that time. They had returned to Bulgaria.”
Despite all this, despite the photograph showing a man running with a gun in his hand, the Italian court ruled that Agca was solely responsible for the assassination attempt! The CIA had exerted great pressure to ensure that the courts did not give a ruling that would lead to its exposure. Agca subsequently met the Pope alone and, it is believed, told the Pope the real story. Whatever he told the Pope remained with the Pope till his dying day. The Pope forgave Agca. CIA was off the hook! Gladio was protected.
Cottrell writes :
“In a commentary published in 1995, the Turkish secret state investigator Serdar Celik described Turkish intelligence MIT as an integral branch of CIA in collaboration with Mossad and BND. ‘. . . many operations of the Special Warfare Department [aka Counter-Guerilla, the Turkish Gladio arm] and Mossad are carried out in collaboration with MIT. A third of MIT’s functionaries are members of the armed forces and the rest are mostly retired military personnel.’ Note the axis leading from MIT and its Gladio units to the CIA and potentially Mossad – not excluding the long-standing collusion between Grey Wolves paramilitaries and Counter-Guerilla – on the route to St. Peters Square.”
An overall view of the various countries and cases described above should leave no doubt that Operation Gladio was illegally initiated by individuals embedded in the U.S. intelligence hierarchy. These individuals were closely tied to and serving the masonic international bankers. The same international bankers had imposed Communism upon Russia. Subversion was carried out by CIA et al controlled Gladio operators all over Europe, in South America, in Africa, and in Turkey in its first phase discussed in part I of this article. Thousands of people died or were maimed or scarred physically and mentally. Countless became drug addicts so the CIA et al could have off the books funds for subversion. For what? To counter Communism!
(to be continued)
REFERENCES AND ENDNOTES:
 Rt. Hon. Winston S. Churchill: Zionism versus Bolshevism A Struggle for the Soul of the Jewish People, Illustrated Sunday Herald, February 8, 1920, p 5.
Churchill wrote: “In violent opposition to all this sphere of Jewish effort rise the schemes of the International Jews. The adherents of this sinister confederacy are mostly men reared up among the unhappy populations of countries where Jews are persecuted on account of their race. Most, if not all, of them have forsaken the faith of their forefathers, and divorced from their minds all spiritual hopes of the next world. This movement among the Jews is not new. From the days of Spartacus-Weishaupt to those of Karl Marx, and down to Trotsky (Russia), Bela Kun (Hungary), Rosa Luxembourg (Germany), and Emma Goldman (United States), this world-wide conspiracy for the overthrow of civilization and for the reconstitution of society on the basis of arrested development, of envious malevolence, and impossible equality, has been steadily growing. It played, as a modern writer, Mrs. Webster, has so ably shown, a definitely recognizable part in the tragedy of the French Revolution. It has been the mainspring of every subversive movement during the Nineteenth Century; and now at last this band of extraordinary personalities from the underworld of the great cities of Europe and America have gripped the Russian people by the hair of their heads and have become practically the undisputed masters of that enormous empire.”
 Antony Sutton: Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution, first published 1974, most recently printed 2012, Clairview Publishers;
In his book Secrets of the Federal Reserve (first published 1951; 1991 edition published by Bridger House Publishing) Eustace Mullins mentions on p 85 that it is part of the Congressional record that when the Bolsheviks ran out of money, President Wilson sent them $100 million out of his Special Emergency War Fund!
 Andrew Carrington Hitchcock: The Synagogue of Satan, RiverCrest Publishing, 2010, p 98.
Also see Juri Lina: Architects of Deception, Referent Publishing 2004
 Gerry Docherty and Jim Macgregor: Hidden History – The Secret Origins of the First World War, Mainstream Publishers, 2013, 2014
 Guido G. Preparata: Conjuring Hitler – How Britain and America Made the Third Reich, Pluto Press 2005
Mujahid Kamran: International Bankers, World Wars I, II and Beyond; University of the Punjab Press and Publications Department, 2015.
 Carol White: The New Dark Ages Conspiracy – Britain’s Plot to Destroy Civilization, 1980, The New Benjamin Franklin House Publishing, 1980.
 Eustace C. Mullins: The World Order – A Study in the Hegemony of Parasitism, Ezra Pound Institute of Civilization, 1985
 Antony C. Sutton: Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler, first published 1976, reprinted by Clairview Books 2010
 Paul L. Williams: Operation Gladio – The Unholy Alliance between the Vatican, the CIA, and the Mafia, Prometheus Books 2015
 Ibid, p 62.
 Robert K. Wilcox: Target Patton The Plot to Assassinate General George S. Patton, 2nd edition Regenry History 2014, first edition 2008.
Also see: Mujahid Kamran: The Murder of General Patton, http://www.mujahidkamran.com/articles.php?id=33
 Paul L. Williams, op cit p 29.
 Ibid, chapter 5
 anomalies.net: Secret Warfare: Operation Gladio and NATO’s Stay-Behind Armies, Global Research, 3 September 2012, http://www.globalresearch.ca/secret-warfare-operation-gladio-and-natos-stay-behind-armies/5303061
 Paul. L Williams, op cit, p 68.
 Ibid, chapters 5 (p 61) and 7 (p 109).
 Ibid, p 61.
 Ibid, p 34-37.
 Ibid, p 47.
Ibid, chapter 2.
 Richard Cottrell: Gladio: NATO’s Dagger in the Heart of Europe – The Pentagon-Nazi-Mafia Axis, Progressive Press, 2012, p 13.
However the first book that comprehensively exposed Gladio was penned by Daniel Ganser: NATO’s Secret Armies, Routledge, 2005. This is a pioneering work.
 Eustace C. Mullins, op cit. (ref. 7 above)
 Richard Cottrell, op cit, pp 10,11.
 Paul L. Williams, op cit, p 96.
 Ibid, p 98.
 Ibid, p 103.
 Richard Cottrell, op cit, p 69.
 Ed Vulliamy: Secret Agents freemasons, fascists, . . . and a top-level campaign for political `destabilization’; Guardian, 5 December 1990.
 Peter Dale Scott: Systemic Destabilization in Recent American History: 9/11 and the JFK Assassination, and the Oklahoma City Bombing as a Strategy of Tension; http://www.japanfocus.org/-Peter_Dale-Scott/3835/article.html
 Paul L. Williams, op cit, p 110.
 Ibid, p 95.
 Richard Cottrell, op cit, p 13.
 Ibid, p 14.
 Paul L. Williams, op cit, p 68.
 Richard Cottrell, op cit, p 59.
 John P. Anderson: George Bush and CIA Behind the Assassination of Prime Minister Olof Palme, http://www.leopoldreport.com/JohnA.html 19.1.2013
 John P. Anderson, Tony Widing and Anders Leopold: Professional American Disinformation Agents Sabotaged the Investigation into the Murder of Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme;
 Christopher Bollyn: The Strange Death of Anna Lindh; http://hugequestions.com/Eric/TFC/by_Bollyn_Lindh-murder.htm, 26 September 2003.
 Richard Cottrell, op cit, p 63.
 Moti Nissani: A Bird’s Eye View of Contrived Terror, Parts I-V, posted at Veterans Today; the quote is from Part II; http://www.veteranstoday.com/2013/06/22/the-gladio-conspiracy-part-ii-of-a-birds-eye-view-of-contrived-terror/
 Richard Cottrell, op cit, p 63.
 Ibid, p 322.
 Ibid, p 323
 Leo Gerber: Neo-Nazi Group Suspected in Munich Oktoberfest Bombing; https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=9gYgAAAAIBAJ&sjid=t2QFAAAAIBAJ&pg=1421,5561612&hl=en
 Dave Emory:Blockbuster Story: Germany Reopens Oktoberfest Bombing Probe, http://spitfirelist.com/news/blockbuster-story-germany-reopens-oktoberfest-bombing-probe/
 Dietmar Henning: Investigation into 1980 Munich Oktoberfest bombing reopened
 Jan Friedmann, Cony Neumann, Steve Robel and Steffen Winter 1980 Oktoberfest Bombing: Did Neo-Nazi Murderer Really Act Alone;
 BBC film: Gladio – you tube reference: State Terrorism: Operation Gladio – Belgium https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=skYk-In0QxU,
 You tube reference; Operation Gladio: NATO’s 1985 Brabant Massacres in Belgian Supermarkets; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TjD3hEQD5_8
 Richard Cottrell, op cit, pp 308, 309.
 Oswald LeWinter: Bush-Cheney Cabal:Pedophilia, Arms Dealing, Murder; http://www.conspiracyplanet.com/channel.cfm?channelid=120&contentid=1337&page=1
 Richard Cottrell, op cit p 313.
 Daniel Ganser: NATO’s Secret Armies. Operation Gladio and Terrorism in Western Europe, Routledge, 2005, chapter 16, p 216.
 Quoted by Daniele Ganser in chapter 16, p 219. Original source: Peter Murtagh: The Rape of Greece. The King, the Colonels, and the Resistance; London Simon and Schuster, 1994, p 90.
 Ibid, chapter 16, p 222. Original sources cited by Ganser: Amnesty International, Torture in Greece: The First Torturer’s Trial in 1975, London 1977, Passim. Also William Blum, Killing Hope, pp 218-230 and Peter Murtagh: The Rape of Greece. The King, the Colonels, and the Resistance; London Simon and Schuster, 1994, pp 1-9.
 Richard Cottrell, op cit, p 171.
 Ibid, pp 172, 173.
 Daniele Ganser, op cit, chapter 9, p 118.
 Ibid, p 120.
 Ibid, p 228.
 Ibid, p 231.
 Ibid, p 232.
 Coils Masonic Encyclopedia, Macoy Publishing and Masonic Supply Company, Inc., p 306.
 Daniele Ganser, op cit, p 239.
 Ibid, p 230.
 Richard Cottrell, op cit, pp 273, 274.
 Paul L. Williams, op cit, p 214.
 Richard Cottrell, op cit, p 274.
 Paul L. Williams, op cit, 207.
 Peter Dale Scott, The American Deep State, Deep Events, and Off-the-Books Financing
The Asia-Pacific Journal, Vol. 12, Issue 14, No. 3 ;
Richard Cottrell, op cit, p 267.
 Ibid, pp 265, 266.
 Ibid, pp 265, 266.
 Paul L. Williams, op cit, p 208.
 Quoted from Joseph Trento’s book Secret History of the CIA, by Steve Sewall in the book Fleshing Out Skull and Bones, Investigations into America’s Most Powerful Secret Society, by Antony Sutton et al Trineday LLC, 2003, p 56.
 Paul L. Williams, op cit, p 214.
Richard Cottrell, op cit, p 291.
Dr. Kevin Barrett, a Ph.D. Arabist-Islamologist, is one of America’s best-known critics of the War on Terror.
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